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Refugees Case Study Afghanistan Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.

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1 Refugees Case Study Afghanistan Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

2 Location of Afghanistan Afghanistan is bordered on the north by Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan, on the extreme northeast by China, on the east and south by Pakistan, and by Iran on the west.

3 Conflicts in Afghanistan ► In 1973, the Afghan Communist Party and its leader, Daoud Khan, overthrew the ruling Afghan government's long-time king Zahir Shah. Daoud, did away with the monarchy and instituted economic and social reforms. In 1978, Daoud was killed and his government fell in a bloody Communist-backed coup. ► The Soviets invaded the nation and installed a puppet regime in the capitol of Kabul after anti-Communist forces took control in A long, weary guerilla war between various Afghan resistance groups and Soviet forces followed and resulting in mass killings, arrests and tortures. There were 3.9 million refugees by the end of ► In 1984, the United States and other nations began supporting the Mujahedeen, from then the war intensified and by 1988 there was 5.9 million refugees. In 1992 the resistance group successfully took over Kabul and declared Afghanistan liberated. The government falls to mujahedeen in April. Sibghatullah Mojadidi named president and later replaced by Burhanuddin Rabbani. 1.6 million refugees went home.

4 Conflicts in Afghanistan ► However, the liberation period was short and in 1996 the Taliban militia seized control of the capitol city and implemented fundamentalist Islamic law, barring women from work and education. Islamic punishment was introduced including amputation and death by stoning. In 1997, fighting continues in western, central and northern Afghanistan causing 2.7 million refugees. ► In 2001, displacement increased beyond a million following the September terrorist attacks as people leave cities and towns fearing reprisals. Despite U.N. pleas, Afghanistan's neighbours close their borders, but up to 200,000 people still cross into Pakistan while others are stuck in makeshift IDP camps in border zones. UNHCR establishes 15 new refugee camps in the country's border belt. With the fall of the Taliban in late November, refugees and displaced persons begin making their way home ► In 2002 Afghans continue to flee the persistent drought. Others speak of persecution and fear due to ethnic attacks in some parts of northern Afghanistan in the weeks following the fall of the Taliban resulting in 3.7 million refugees The U.N offered refugee aid package and some refugees returned home.

5 Distribution of Afghan refugees ► Afghan refugees are located predominantly in Pakistan approximately around 2 million refugees especially in the northwest of the country near Islamabad. There are more than 150 refugees camps along the border of Afghanistan and Pakistan. ► Another country that receive many Afghan refugees is Tajikistan.

6 Conditions in a camp for Afghan refugees. These children are waiting to fill their containers at the reservoir. Families at the Mar Garh camp, Afghanistan, received vital assistance from CAFOD and Islamic Relief Housing conditions in refugee camp

7 Conditions in a camp for Afghan refugees. The simple presence of a few green spaces in the camp can have a large positive impact; it gives these children a more pleasant place to play. Afghans wishing to return home are registered at Takhtabaig registration centre. Body pain and general weakness is normal. This child was unable to walk so he was getting around on his hands and knees. A refugee camp in Pakistan living in warehoused conditions

8 Problems for host country ► Threats to internal security - Many refugees come from situations of civil war and bring their weapons with them. These are then used by some for crimes, which include armed robbery and poaching. ► Large influxes can also place serious strains on the environment and social infrastructure. These problems become more severe where burden sharing through international assistance is (or becomes) limited. ► Developing country that host large groups of refugees, caring forthem means significant additional burden to an already fragile economy. ► Refugees can also breed resentment inside a host country. In many instances, people inside a particular refugee camp may have more food and health care than poor native residents living just outside the camp's fence ► refugee camps are tempting targets for troublemakers. Rebels have been known to hide themselves (and their weapons) inside the relative safety of a refugee or IDP camp.

9 Possible solutions To improve treatment of refugees ► creating public awareness and increasing involvement from domestic civil society organisations by using the media. ► Donor governments and the international community increase funding and humanitarian aid in order to increase early-childhood vaccination campaigns, emergency food rationing, malaria prevention ► enhancing international burden-sharing both in emergencies, but also to provide assistance to ameliorate the environmental and other long-term impacts experienced by countries hosting large refugee populations. ► Improve cooperation between host countries and relieved organisations to ensure equal distribution of resources such as food and health care ► Emphasis on food distribution to solve problems of mulnutirtion in children to reduce child mortality in refugees camp ► Improve sanitation to limit health problems such as diarrhoea ► developed countries ought to take a greater part in to reduce human suffering worldwide. For example, sending skilled doctors to treat the wounded and reductions on price of medicinies and vaccinations. ► Ensure that UN agencies and other non-govermental organisations act urgently to limit human suffering by proving international emergency relieft such as water food shelter clothing and health care. ► Ensure displaced children have access to education opportunities to give them a better future when they go back to their home country ► Offer psychological help to reduce post-traumatic stress disorder such as anxiety, over-alertness, sleeplessness, motoric difficulties, failing short term memory, amnesia, nightmares and sleep- paralysis. ► Enforece on fair treatment for refugees to receive all human rights including employment and protection while living in the country of refuge.

10 Possible solutions To reduce Root causes of people becoming refugees ► creation of democratic societies and adequate social conditions within the country. Majority of refugees were now fleeing not from conflicts between countries, nor from individual acts of persecution, but from conflicts within a state. ► a liberal trade policy which should improve economic conditions in the countries of emigration as well as assistance in economic development in developing countries with problems. ► Effective UN peackeeping operations and responses such as preventive diplomacy, the adoption of an emergency plan to deal with imminent refugee flows, cooperation with neighbouring states to enable refugees to stay in their region of origin, peace-making and the return of refugees. ► Reduce the risk of conflicts by supporting peace processes at all levels and to ensure the disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of former combatants, including youths. ► eliminating ethnic strife and conflict by curtailing the arms trade ► establishing a firm foundation for democratic institutions and governance; respect for human rights; and the promotion of economic development and social progress as common root causes for people becoming refugees are of ecnomoic and political instability ► Solve global poverty to reduce political conflict that causes displacement. Societies that are able to meet basic needs of their population are more likely to be politcally stable.


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