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UNHCR Afghanistan Presentation Returnee Reintegration Policy Review Workshop 13-14 December 2011, Kabul.

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Presentation on theme: "UNHCR Afghanistan Presentation Returnee Reintegration Policy Review Workshop 13-14 December 2011, Kabul."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNHCR Afghanistan Presentation Returnee Reintegration Policy Review Workshop December 2011, Kabul

2  The legal Framework for Repatriation  Repatriation Process  Return Trends  Returnee the ECs  Future Scenarios UNHCR Facilitated Voluntary Repatriation

3 Tripartite Agreement THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR REPATRIATION The volrep is governed by the Tripartite Agreement, which enables the parties (Government of Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran and UNHCR to ensure the integrity of the repatriation process. The volrep is governed by the Tripartite Agreement, which enables the parties (Government of Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran and UNHCR to ensure the integrity of the repatriation process. In May 2010 the Governments of Pakistan and Afghanistan and UNHCR formally extended the Tripartite Agreement governing the voluntary repatriation of registered Afghans in Pakistan through the end of December In May 2010 the Governments of Pakistan and Afghanistan and UNHCR formally extended the Tripartite Agreement governing the voluntary repatriation of registered Afghans in Pakistan through the end of December Similarly, on 28 June and after a two-year break, UNHCR and the Governments of Iran and Afghanistan held Tripartite Consultations on the repatriation of Afghans from Iran. The resulting agreement outlined the duties and responsibilities of each party, with UNHCR taking a supervisory role in the repatriation and reintegration processes. Similarly, on 28 June and after a two-year break, UNHCR and the Governments of Iran and Afghanistan held Tripartite Consultations on the repatriation of Afghans from Iran. The resulting agreement outlined the duties and responsibilities of each party, with UNHCR taking a supervisory role in the repatriation and reintegration processes.

4 Repatriation Process In Country of Asylum: In Country of Asylum:  An Afghan refugee wishing to return to Afghanistan with the assistance of UNHCR must approach UNHCR’s Voluntary Repatriation Centres (VRCs) in the country of asylum to register for return and sign a Voluntary Repatriation Form (VRF). VRFs are available at VRCs in Pakistan and Iran and at UNHCR Offices in other countries of asylum. In Country of Origin: In Country of Origin:  Upon arrival in Afghanistan, returnees must approach a UNHCR Encashment Centre (EC) to receive the transportation and reintegration cash grant. At the ECs, returnees have access to a variety of services including briefings on mine-awareness and education procedures in Afghanistan, polio and measles vaccinations for children, mosquito nets in malaria-prone areas, basic medical assistance, information on how to access legal aid assistance and transit centres for overnight stay. There are five UNHCR ECs in the country: Kabul, Herat, Jalalabad, Gardez and Kandahar. All of them are managed by UNHCR in cooperation with the Government’s Provincial Departments of Refugees and Repatriation (DoRR).

5 Repatriation Process Repatriation Cash Grant Map

6 Repatriation Process

7 Return trends Since 2002, some 5.7 million Afghan refugees have returned to their home country, of which 4.6 million have been assisted by UNHCR and the respective governments through the voluntary repatriation program Since 2002, some 5.7 million Afghan refugees have returned to their home country, of which 4.6 million have been assisted by UNHCR and the respective governments through the voluntary repatriation program

8 Return trends  The era of voluntary mass return, as seen between 2002 and 2005, has ended mainly due to the lack of absorption capacity and deteriorating security situation in Afghanistan and the fact that most of the remaining registered populations living in Pakistan (1.9 million) and Iran (nearly 1 million) have been in exile for over twenty years; many of them were born in exile and have lost vital linkages to their homeland.

9 Return trends So far in 2011 some 66,491 Afghan refugees returned voluntarily; So far in 2011 some 66,491 Afghan refugees returned voluntarily; o 47,879 from Pakistan - 54% decrease compared to 104,331 Afghans who returned during The decrease in returns may be attributed to the extension of the POR cards through 2012 as well as improved security in the country. o 18,513 from Iran - 56% increase compared to 8,196 Afghans who came back during the same period last year. The increase in returns from Iran may be largely attributed to the economic pressures and the discontinuation of subsidies on basic goods and services by the Iranian Government. o 99 from other countries

10 Return trends Main areas of return from Pakistan

11 Return trends Recorded destination Over 80% of the total returns to C, E, N & NE regions The top 5 provinces of returns are; Kabul, Nangarhar, Kunduz, Baghlan and Kandahar provinces Region IndividualsIndividuals %IndividualsIndividuals % Central 1,709, % 21, % East 1,130, % 15, % Northeast 594, % 8, % North 371,0018.1% 5,2517.9% West 278,1806.0% 6,3579.6% South 277,3426.0% 5,9158.9% Southeast 180,0773.9% 2,7104.1% C. Highlands 43,9091.0% % Various 18,3630.4% -0.0% Total 4,603, % 66, %

12 Encashment Centre Returnee Monitoring UNHCR and MoRR staff conducting Encashment Centre Returnee monitoring at the five ECs serving returnees from Pakistan and Iran; UNHCR and MoRR staff conducting Encashment Centre Returnee monitoring at the five ECs serving returnees from Pakistan and Iran; Jamal Mayna: 30 %Jamal Mayna: 30 % Mohmmad Dara: 28 %Mohmmad Dara: 28 % Kabul: 27 %Kabul: 27 % Herat: 8 %Herat: 8 % Gardez: 7 %Gardez: 7 % This monitoring exercise assists UNHCR & MoRR in identifying trends in repatriation, such as push and pull factors, as well as protection concerns of returnees This monitoring exercise assists UNHCR & MoRR in identifying trends in repatriation, such as push and pull factors, as well as protection concerns of returnees So far this year a total of 3,081 interviews conducted (representing 30% of returnee families), of whom 2,827 interviews with returnees from Pakistan & 254 with returnees from Iran So far this year a total of 3,081 interviews conducted (representing 30% of returnee families), of whom 2,827 interviews with returnees from Pakistan & 254 with returnees from Iran UNHCR and MoRR staff conducting Encashment Centre Returnee monitoring at the five ECs serving returnees from Pakistan and Iran; UNHCR and MoRR staff conducting Encashment Centre Returnee monitoring at the five ECs serving returnees from Pakistan and Iran; Jamal Mayna: 30 %Jamal Mayna: 30 % Mohmmad Dara: 28 %Mohmmad Dara: 28 % Kabul: 27 %Kabul: 27 % Herat: 8 %Herat: 8 % Gardez: 7 %Gardez: 7 % This monitoring exercise assists UNHCR & MoRR in identifying trends in repatriation, such as push and pull factors, as well as protection concerns of returnees This monitoring exercise assists UNHCR & MoRR in identifying trends in repatriation, such as push and pull factors, as well as protection concerns of returnees So far this year a total of 3,081 interviews conducted (representing 30% of returnee families), of whom 2,827 interviews with returnees from Pakistan & 254 with returnees from Iran So far this year a total of 3,081 interviews conducted (representing 30% of returnee families), of whom 2,827 interviews with returnees from Pakistan & 254 with returnees from Iran

13 Encashment Centre Returnee Monitoring  Of the respondents; 66 % were Males and 34 % were Females, of whom 4 % were minors between the ages of 12 and % between age of 18 and 59 and 11 % were over the age of 60+  Of the respondents; 66 % were Males and 34 % were Females, of whom 4 % were minors between the ages of 12 and % between age of 18 and 59 and 11 % were over the age of 60+ Years of exile: 75 % left Afghanistan during Communist regime 14 % during Taliban regime 8 % during Mujahideen period 3 % during Transitional government

14 Access to information to make an informed decision for return:  94 % had sufficient information to make an informed decision  Source of information on repatriation operation: 62 % Received info from the Afghan community 17 % Through UNHCR 9 % Through Media (mainly radio and TV) 9 % Visited Afghanistan  Source of information on place of origin: 55 % Received info from the Afghan community 25 % Visited Afghanistan 6 % Through Media (mainly radio and TV) 5 % Through UNHCR and 5 % Through other sources

15 Push & Pull Factors of Return PUSH FACTORS PAKIRN Average (Pak/IRN) Economic factors67.6%93.3%80.5% Alleged harassment by authorities14.2%6.3%10.3% Deteriorating security conditions5.2%0.0%2.6% Fear of arrest and/or deportation2.4%0.4%1.4% Lack of School and health facilities1.0%0.0%0.5% Other reasons9.6%0.0%4.8%

16 Push & Pull Factors of Return PULL FACTORS PAKIRN Average (PAK/IRN) Local improvement in security in some parts of Afghanistan50.6%90.6%70.6% Employment opportunities16.6%0.0%8.3% Land allocation scheme and/or UNHCR shelter program13.3%4.3%8.8% UNHCR assistance package10.7%0.0%5.4% No longer have a fear of persecution5.1%1.6%3.3% Improved weather condition1.3%0.0%0.7% Improvement in health and education facilities1.3%0.4%0.8% Other reasons1.0%3.1%2.1%

17 Potential Refugee Returnees (Future Scenarios) – 2012 & 2013 Scenario 1: As per ANDS RRI sector strategy, it is assumed that a projected figure of 400,000 will return to Afghanistan during 2012 and 2013 Scenario ,000 during 2012 and 2013 Scenario ,000 during 2012 and 2013 However, the actual return mainly depends on socio-economic opportunities and security situation in CoA (mainly Pakistan) and CoO. Therefore, UNHCR expects to facilitate the return of some 162,000 registered Afghans mainly from Pakistan, Iran and other NNCs during 2012 and a total of 150,000 during 2013.

18 Thank you ?


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