Presentation on theme: "HISTORY 12 MS LESLIE France and the UK Between the Wars."— Presentation transcript:
HISTORY 12 MS LESLIE France and the UK Between the Wars
France tries to get security Built the infamous Maginot Line A series of concrete forts and tunnels along the franco-German border Weaknesses: 1. not built along the border with Belgium 2. Was built for trench warfare - didn’t factor in future use of airplanes
France signs a series of alliances 1920 - Belgium 1921 - Poland 1927 - Fully joins the ‘little Entente’ with Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia against German aggression
Washington Naval Agreements of 1922 Between USA, Britain, France, Italy and Japan. All about naval disarmament Would not build battleships for 10 years Battleships only, no cruisers, destroyers or subs. Naval tonnage to be reduced to an agreed upon ratio To last until 1936 But there was no provision for inspections and Japan soon violated this agreement.
Locarno Pact. Dec. 1, 1925 series of agreements whereby Germany, France, Belgium, Great Britain, and Italy mutually guaranteed peace in Western Europe. The treaties were initialed at Locarno, Switz., on October 16 and signed in London on December 1. To recognize existing European borders and maintain demilitarization of Rhineland
Locarno Continued German-Belgian and Franco-German frontiers were fixed by the Treaty of Versailles Germany, Belgium, and France would never attack each other except in “legitimate defense” or in consequence of a League of Nations obligation they would settle their disputes by pacific means Allied troops evacuated from the Rhineland in 1930, five years ahead of schedule.
Locarno Continued…. Germany renounced the use of force to change its western frontiers but agreed only to arbitration as regards its eastern frontiers Great Britain promised to defend Belgium and France but not Poland and Czechoslovakia.
Problems with Locarno It set western but not eastern boundaries; meaning there is a hierarchy of borders Hitler will take advantage of the unsecured eastern borders and expand East at first
The Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928 Originally proposed to the USA by France’s Briand that they sign a pact renouncing war. Kellogg (US Secretary of state at the time) suggested other nations sign as well. Eventually 65 nations signed it. Japan broke its promise within 3 years when it struck out against China when trying to overcome the Depression by seizing resources and markets. (Manchurian Crisis)
Problems with Kellogg-Briand 1) Nothing was done to outlaw war. 2) Failed to define self-defense. 3) No way to enforce it
London Naval Conference of 1930 An extension of the Washington Conference. USA, UK, France, Italy, Japan To further reduce the amount of naval tonnage Never worked as France and Italy got in a fight and left the conference and Japan violated it in 1937.
Geneva Disarmament Conference 1932 60 nations attended including USA, Germany and USSR. All about arms reduction But Hitler pulled out when he came into power in 1933. And hopes of effective disarmament were lost.
France Politics very unstable, they go through like a million different governments in 10 years Most of the governments are right-wing Political instability almost always leads to extremist groups gaining power
Why the instability Part of the Problem with France was a lack of strong leaders. The old leaders were dying off (Clemenseau, Briand, Poincare) with no strong replacements. Economy is in shambles after WWI - massive debt and reconstruction
France’s Population Problems o France’s population was growing slowly. o In 1939 the population was only 40 million, the same as it was in 1913. o At the same time, Germany had 80 million. o France was desperate to increase its population and even instituted a reward system for having a lot of babies.
Agriculture had not come into the modern era. Small farms were unable to use modern techniques of mass production. High tariffs provided no incentive for farmers to modernize, as farmers had no problem making money with the amount they produced.
o Industry continued to be dominated by small factories. o War damaged factories were rebuilt to be modern, and the auto industry was helped by this (Renault, Citroen and Peugot did very well) o Massive wartime borrowing and the cost of reconstruction left France with high rates of inflation, which were only increased in the 1930’s.
Britain Had problems transitioning from a war economy and the subsequent depressions Had difficulty maintaining the empire when there were so many post-war European demands.
4 million soldiers had returned home looking for work. massive inflation as wages remained low and prices rose. 2,000 strikes between 1919 and 1920. Radicals were looking to the Russian revolution as a signal for a time for change in Britain as well.
Problems with the Irish Imperial Politics were becoming threatening at home. In Ireland 73 Sinn Fein MP’s set up their own Dail (parliament) rather than take up their seats in the British Parliament. The IRA launched a terrorist campaign. The British responded by sending in demobilized soldiers.
In December of 1921, a settlement was negotiated allowing for a partition of Ireland and Southern Irish independence as a Dominion within the Empire. Full independence was granted in 1949.
Problems with India British empire is in further jeopardy with India starting to ask for self-governance. We’ll go over this in unit 4