Presentation on theme: "Content Statement #7 The Reformation introduced changes in religion including the emergence of Protestant faiths and a decline in the political power and."— Presentation transcript:
Content Statement #7 The Reformation introduced changes in religion including the emergence of Protestant faiths and a decline in the political power and social influence of the Roman Catholic Church
The Renaissance was a period of rebirth of learning in Europe Inspiration from Ancient Greeks and Romans Also influenced by Muslims and Islamic Culture Art ▪ Humanism ▪ Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo Literature ▪ Niccolo Machiavelli (Italian) ▪ William Shakespeare (English) Science ▪ Study of bones and muscles ▪ Printing Press Invented
During the Renaissance, the Church still held great power. The Reformation was an effort to reform, or improve, the Catholic Church. The Renaissance heavily influenced the Reformation The Reformation began in 1517 in Germany
Born November 10, 1493 Died February 18, 1546 ▪ 62 years old Occupation Monk Location Germany
Luther disagreed with many of the teachings and practices of the Roman Catholic Church of the early 1500’s He believed that people did not need Popes or other Church officials to tell them what God wanted them to do. According to Luther, faith in God and common sense (not obedience to the Church) was the key to a proper Christian life.
Luther also believed that ordinary people could understand the Bible for themselves This goes against the Church He translated the Bible into German so that ordinary people could read it He was in favor of creating town schools that would teach everyone to read
Luther especially despised the Church practice of selling indulgences Indulgences were pardons for sins During this time people could pay money to the Church to be forgiven for their sins Luther felt that the Church did not have the power to exchange God’s forgiveness for money The church would sell indulgences more to raise money than for any truly religious reason
Luther began to publically criticize the Catholic Church On October 31, 1517, Luther posted a list of complaints on the door of his church in Wittenberg, Germany This list of complaints became known as the “95 Thesis”
In Germany, priests, nobles, and ordinary people rallied behind Luther’s ideas. Some priests agreed with Luther about corruption in the Church Nobles were eager to limit the Church’s overwhelming power. They wanted to collect their own taxes and make their own laws Like the leaders of Italy’s city-states
On 15 June 1520, the Pope Leo X warned Luther that he risked excommunication unless he withdrew is writings criticizing the Church This included his “95 Thesis” Luther refused
As a consequence of refusing to withdraw his criticism, Luther was excommunicated by Pope Leo X on January 3, 1521 The enforcement of the ban on the “95 Theses” fell to the secular authorities.
On 18 April 1521, Luther appeared as ordered before the “Diet of Worms”. This was a general assembly of the estates of the Holy Roman Empire Luther still refused to withdraw his writings
Over the next five days, private conferences were held to determine Luther's fate. The Emperor declared Luther an outlaw, banning his literature, and requiring his arrest It also made it a crime for anyone in Germany to give Luther food or shelter. It permitted anyone to kill Luther without legal consequence.
After the Diet of Worms, Luther was sent back to Wittenberg On the road home Luther was abducted by a group of men Luther's disappearance during his return trip back to Wittenberg was planned. Prince Frederick III had him intercepted on his way home in the forest near Wittenberg by masked horsemen who were made to appear as armed highwaymen They escorted Luther to the security of Wartburg Castle (home of Prince Frederick III)
While at Wartburg, Luther translated the New Testament from Greek to German From the safety of Wartburg Castle, Luther continued to criticize the Church
Luther secretly returned to Wittenberg While in Wittenberg, Luther organized and supported many peasant uprisings Martin Luther later married Katharina von Bora (a former nun) Remember marriage was not permitted for monks
Soon people in much of Northern Europe held views similar to Luther’s They created their own Christian Churches, free of Roman Catholic control These came to be called Protestant Churches because they grew out of protests against the power and abuses of the Roman Catholic Church Today their members are still called Protestants
Many Roman Catholics agreed with some criticisms made by Protestants. Instead of turning away from the Church, they worked to reform and correct the abuses of the Church The Catholic Reformation also wanted to bring Protestants back to the Catholic Church and to make sure that Catholics held strictly to Church teachings
Jesuits were members of the Society of Jesus who became well- known as teachers and missionaries They were among the best-educated people of Europe at this time
Religious Impact Catholic and Protestant Political Impact Nations aligned themselves with each branch ▪ England (Protestant) ▪ France (Catholic Majority, Protestant Minority) ▪ Spain (Spain Catholic) Social Impact Middle class became stronger Lower class wanted more rights Importance of the individual