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Take notes on your assignment. Email them to me or give to me Wednesday morning in homeroom Highlight important contribution events Multiple Choice Quiz on East Absolutism on Friday JIGSAW FOR WEDNESDAY
FOUR PHASES OF THE 30 YRS WAR Bohemian (1618- 1625) Danish ( 1625- 1629 Swedish (1630- 1635) French/ International (1635-1648)
The rise of the Habsburg Empire and the impact of its leaders… Ferdinand III Charles VI Leopold I IF YOU ARE A #2
The Rise of Prussia Absolutism Frederick William, the “Great Elector” (r. 1640-1688) Frederick III, “the Ostentatious” (r. 1688-1713) Frederick William I, “the Soldiers’ King” (r. 1713-1740) IF YOU ARE A #3
The Rise of Russian Absolutism Ivan the Great Peter the Great Ivan the Terrible IF YOU ARE A #4
Bell Ringer: Define the term ABSOLUTISM and its characteristics Agenda and Objective: Through notes and document analysis, students will identify the characteristics of Eastern Absolutism and the background causes of the 30 years War. WELCOME BACK!
WEST VS. EAST REVIEW Diverged after 1300: Western EuropeEastern Europe serfdom abolishedserfdom reestablished weak lordspowerful lords urbanagrarian strong middle classweak middle class strong states – strong central authority weak empires – weak central authority
Three aging empires—Holy Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire and Polish Kingdom—gave way to new empires of Russia, Austria and Prussia (“HOP RAP”) Holy Roman Empire (HRE): religious divisions due to the Reformation and religious wars in 16 th and 17 th centuries split Germany among Catholic, Lutheran and Calvinist princes Ottoman Empire: could not maintain possessions in eastern Europe and the Balkans in the face of Austrian and Russian expansion Poland: liberum veto – voting in Polish parliament had to be unanimous for changes to be made; thus, little could be done to systematically strengthen the kingdom OVERVIEW OF EASTERN EUROPE
Eastern absolutism was based on a powerful nobility, weak middle class, and an oppressed peasantry composed of serfs. Threat of war with European and Asian invaders were important motivations for eastern European monarchs’ drive to consolidate power. Resulted in reduced political power of the nobility. However, nobles gained much greater power over the peasantry.
Three important methods of gaining absolute power: Kings imposed and collected permanent taxes without the consent of their subjects. States maintained permanent standing armies. States conducted relations with other states as they pleased. Absolutism in eastern Europe reached its height with Peter the Great of Russia. Absolutism in Prussia was stronger than in Austria
How different was Eastern Europe compared to Western Europe? QUICK REVIEW
After 1300, lords in eastern Europe revived serfdom to combat increasing economic challenges. Lords demanded that their kings and princes issue laws restricting or eliminating peasants’ right of moving freely Lords confiscated peasant lands and imposed heavier labor obligations. Hereditary serfdom was re-established in Poland, Russia, and Prussia by the mid- 17 th century. SERFDOM IN EASTERN EUROPE
Reasons were not necessarily economic. Political reasons more plausible – supremacy of noble landlords. Most kings, in fact, were essentially “first among equals” in the noble class and directly benefited from serfdom. Eastern lords had more political power than in the west; monarchs needed the nobles. WHY SERFDOM IN EASTERN EUROPE AND NOT WESTERN EUROPE?
BELL RINGER….ACTIVITY Read the following two primary source documents and be prepared to address the discussion questions on the next slide. Agenda and Objective: Through notes and document analysis, students will identify the characteristics of Eastern Absolutism and the background causes of the 30 years War.
Why did the Jesuits refuse to respect the Peace of Augsburg (1555)? How did the Jesuits actions in Germany during the early 1600’s illustrated the confusion between secular and clerical authority in early modern Europe? How might the Jesuits actions result in a general European war? What were the reactions to the crowning of Emperor Ferdinand II? Why? What initial grievance led to the outbreak of violence in Bohemia? Predict reactions to the Bohemian Revolt from the Emperor, Spain, France, etc THE THIRTY YEARS’ WAR
Failure of the Peace of Augsburg, 1555 agreement had given German princes the right to choose either Catholicism or Lutheranism as the official religion of their states. The truce in Germany lasted for 60 years until factionalism in the Holy Roman Empire brought about war THIRTY YEARS’ WAR (1618-1648) – MOST IMPORTANT WAR OF THE 17TH CENTURY
FOR TUESDAY FOUR PHASES OF THE WAR Bohemian (1618- 1625) Danish ( 1625- 1629 Swedish (1630- 1635) French/ International (1635-1648)
Bohemian Phase Defenestration of Prague (1618): triggered war in Bohemia The Holy Roman Emperor placed severe restrictions on Protestantism Two HRE officials were thrown out a window and fell 70 feet below (did not die because they were saved by a large pile of manure) The emperor then sought to annihilate the Calvinist nobility in Bohemia Protestant forces were eventually defeated and Protestantism was eliminated in Bohemia Danish Phase represented the height of Catholic power during the war Albrecht von Wallenstein (1583- 1634): Mercenary general who was paid by the emperor to fight for the HRE Won a number of important battles against Protestant armies Edict of Restitution (1629): The HREmperor declared all church territories that had been secularized since 1552 to be automatically restored to Catholic Church FOUR PHASES OF THE WAR:
Swedish Phase: Protestants liberated territory lost in previous (Danish) phase Gustavus Adolphus (King of Sweden): led an army that pushed Catholic forces back to Bohemia. Dies. In response, the Holy Roman Emperor reluctantly annulled the Edict of Restitution The Swedish army was defeated in 1634; France now feared a resurgence of Catholicism in the HRE.
French Phase: “International Phase” Cardinal Richelieu of France allied with the Protestant forces to defeat the HRE. (example of Politique) Treaty of Westphalia (1648): ended the Catholic Reformation in Germany Renewal of Peace of Augsburg Guaranteed that Germany would remain divided politically and religiously for centuries Dissolution of Holy Roman Empire confirmed
France, Sweden, and Brandenburg (future Prussia) received various territories and gained international stature. The two Hapsburg branches were weakened: Spanish Hapsburgs saw their empire decline dramatically thereafter Austrian Hapsburgs lost much influence in Germany Results of 30 Years’ War Germany physically devastated Germany was further divided by the decline of the Holy Roman Empire Ended the wars of religion Beginning of the rise of France as the dominant European power; also accelerated the continued rise of Britain & the Netherlands THE TREATY…
E nd of Wars of Religion F rance emerges as Europe’s most powerful country C alvinism added to the Peace of Augsburg H oly Roman Empire effectively destroyed I ndependence for the Netherlands and Switzerland P russia emerges as a great power MEMORY DEVICE FOR TREATY OF WESTPHALIA: EF-CHIP
RISE OF EASTERN ABSOLUTISM REVIEW Monarchs vs. landlords successful monarchs gained power in 3 key areas: 1)taxation 2)army 3)foreign policy
How did the Austrian Empire consolidate its power? AUSTRIAN ABSOLUTISM
AUSTRIA Habsburgs mostly in HRE, but also outside to SE Austrian rulers = HRE emperors Catholic Habsburg domains to 1795.
Ruler of Austria was traditionally selected as Holy Roman Emperor Was NOT a national state – its multinational empire included: Austria proper: Germans, Italians Bohemia: Czechs Hungary: Hungarians, Serbs, Croats, Romanians No single constitutional system or administration existed in the empire as each region had a different legal relationship to the Emperor. THE HABSBURG EMPIRE (AUSTRIAN EMPIRE)
Ineffective Habsburg rule in the HRE forced monarchs to turn their attention inward and eastward to consolidate their diverse holdings into a strong unified state. Reorganization of Bohemia was a major step towards absolutism 30 Years’ War set stage Old hereditary provinces of Austria proper were centralized by Ferdinand III (1637-1657). Hungary was the third and largest part of its dominion. Serfdom intensified in Habsburg lands Robot - 3 days of unpaid labor a week became the norm, many serfs worked everyday except Sunday STEPS TO ABSOLUTISM
AUSTRIA – TURKISH WARS & EXPANSION: 1529 & 1683 – unsuccessful Ottoman sieges on Vienna Habsburgs acquire Hungary & Transylvania (Romania) from Ottomans (but not fully integrated) new Habsburg state = Austria, Bohemia, + Hungary
Ferdinand II (1619-1637) took control of Bohemia during the 30 Years’ War Ferdinand III (1637-1657): centralized gov’t in the old hereditary provinces of Austria proper. Leopold I (1658-1705) Severely restricted Protestant worship Siege of Vienna: Successfully repelled Turks from gates of Vienna in 1683 Emperor Charles VI (1711-1740): Issued Pragmatic Sanction in 1713 Habsburg possessions were never to be divided and henceforth to be passed intact to a single heir (even if female.) His daughter, Maria Theresa, inherited Charles’ empire in 1740 and ruled for 40 years IMPORTANT HABSBURG RULERS
German became official language Catholic identity Vienna- center of the empire. OUTCOMES
Hohenzollerns = elector of Brandenburg & duke of Prussia elector of Brandenburg – helps choose Holy Roman emperor 1618 – Prussia became possession of elector of Brandenburg when junior branch of Hohenzollern family died out
Ruler of Brandenburg was designated as one of 7 electors in the Holy Roman Empire in 1417. Yet by the 17 th century, Brandenburg was not significantly involved in HRE affairs Marriages increasingly gave the Hohenzollerns control of German principalities in central and western Germany. The prince had little power over the nobility PRUSSIA: HOUSE OF HOHENZOLLERN
PRUSSIA Hohenzollerns had little power until 30 Years’ War elector of Brandenburg = position bestowed no real power Brandenburg: land-locked, no natural defenses, poor land Prussia: separated from Brandenburg, basically part of Poland 30 Years’ War weakened the Estates (rep. assemblies) allowed monarchs to take more power
– HOHENZOLLERN RULERS: Frederick William, the “Great Elector” (r. 1640-1688) Frederick III, “the Ostentatious” (r. 1688-1713) Frederick William I, “the Soldiers’ King” (r. 1713-1740)
Strict Calvinist but granted religious toleration to Catholics and Jews Admired the Swedish system of government and the economic power of the Netherlands Ongoing struggle between Sweden and Poland for control of Baltic after 1648 and wars of Louis XIV created atmosphere of permanent crisis Frederick William, the “Great Elector” (r. 1640-88)
Most significant: Oversaw Prussian militarism and created the most efficient army in Europe. Encouraged industry and trade Employed military power and taxation to unify his Rhine holdings, Prussia, and Brandenburg into a strong state. “ Junkers” formed the backbone of the Prussian military officer corps; these nobles and landowners dominated the Estates of Brandenburg and Prussia. STEPS TOWARDS POWER
FREDERICK WILLIAM, THE “GREAT ELECTOR strengthened central authority: unified 3 provinces: Brandenburg, Prussia, lands along the Rhine forced Estates to accept permanent taxation w/o their consent created permanent standing army factors enabling his success: foreign invasions (from Russia) Estates more willing to issue funds for army In exchange for keeping privileges, the nobility supported him
Frederick I (Elector Frederick III) “The Ostentatious” (1688- 1713); 1 st “King of Prussia” Elector of Brandenburg/Prussia was now recognized internationally as the “King of Prussia” in return for aid to Habsburgs. Thus, Frederick I was the first “King of Prussia
FREDERICK III, “THE OSTENTATIOUS” (R. 1688-1713) focused on copying Louis XIV’s style Frederick III Louis XIV
FREDERICK WILLIAM I, “THE SOLDIERS’ KING” (1713-1740) most influential in est. Prussian absolutism military obsessed strengthened royal authority: created best army in Europe created strong, centralized bureaucracy honest and conscientious worked to develop economy (schools for peasants) eliminated threat from nobility by enlisting Junkers in army (became officers) almost always at peace civil society became militarized – very rigid & disciplined
Most important Hohenzollern regarding the development of Prussian absolutism Infused militarism into all of Prussian society Prussia became known as “Sparta of the North” Junkers became an officer caste Best army in Europe Became Europe’s 4 th largest army (next to France, Russia & Austria) Nearly doubled the size of the army 80% of gov’t revenues went towards the military Prussian army was designed to avoid war through deterrence. Frederick William I “Soldiers’ King”
“ I must serve with life and limb, with house and wealth, with honour and conscience, everything must be committed except eternals salvation-that belongs to God, but all else is mine.”(571)
During the Middle Ages the Greek Orthodox Church was significant in assimilating Scandinavian ancestors of the Vikings with the Slavic peoples of eastern Europe. In the 13 th century, the Mongols from Asia invaded eastern Europe and ruled the eastern Slavs for over two centuries- ”Mongol Yolk” Muscovy began to emerge as the most significant principality that formed the nucleus of what later became Russia. RUSSIA
Row1- Get together and discuss the rise and impact of Ivan III Row 2- Get together and discuss Ivan the Terrible, Times of Troubles and rise of Romanovs Row 3- Get together and discuss the rise and impact of Peter the Great on Russia. What made him so Great? Have a recorder type information. JIGSAW!- 10 MINUTES
1480, ended Mongol domination of Muscovy Established himself as the hereditary ruler of Muscovy This was in response to the fall of the Byzantine Empire and his desire to make Moscow the new center of the Orthodox Church: the “Third Rome The tsar became the head of the church The “2 nd Rome” had been Constantinople before it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1453 Many Greek scholars, craftsmen, architects and artists were brought into Muscovy Ivan III (“Ivan the Great”) (1442-1505)
Tsar claimed his absolute power was derived from divine right as ruler Ivan struggled with the Russian boyars (nobels) for power. Eventually, the boyars’ political influence decreased but they began exerting more control of their peasants.
Grandson of Ivan III First to take the title of “tsar” (Caesar) Married a Romanov Ivan IV (“Ivan the Terrible”) (1533-1584)
Controlled the Black Sea region Gained huge territories in the Far East Gained territories in the Baltic region Began westernizing Muscovy Encouraged trade with England and the Netherlands For 25 years, he fought unsuccessful wars against Poland- Lithuania Cossacks: Many peasants fled the west to the newly-conquered Muscovite territories in the east and formed free groups and outlaw armies. Gov’t responded by increasing serfdom POLICIES…
Reduced the power of the boyars All nobles had to serve the tsar in order to keep their lands Serfdom increased substantially to keep peasants tied to noble lands Many nobles were executed Ivan blamed the boyars for his wife’s death and thus became increasingly cruel and demented Merchants and artisans were also bound to their towns so that the tsar could more efficiently tax them This contrasts the emergence of capitalism in western Europe where merchants gained influence and more security over private property
Period of famine, power struggles and war Cossack bands traveled north massacring nobles and officials Sweden and Poland conquered Moscow In response, nobles elected Ivan’s grand-nephew as new hereditary tsar and rallied around him to drive out the invaders “Time of Troubles” followed Ivan IV’s death in 1584
Lasted from the ascent of Michael Romanov in 1613 to the Russian Revolution in 1917. Michael Romanov (1613-1645) Romanov favored the nobles in return for their support Reduced military obligations significantly Expanded Russian empire to the Pacific Ocean in the Far East. Fought several unsuccessful wars against Sweden, Poland and the Ottoman Empire Romanov Dynasty
Nobles gained more exemptions from military service. Rights of peasants declined Bloody Cossack revolts resulted in further restrictions on serf With Religion-“Old Believers” of the Orthodox Church resisted influx of new religious sects from the west (e.g. Lutherans and Calvinists) RUSSIAN SOCIETY CONTINUED TO TRANSFORM IN THE 17 CENTURY
Western books translated into Russian new skills and technology, clothing and customs (such as men trimming their beards) First Russian translation of the Bible began in 1649 By 1700, 20,000 Europeans lived in Russia By 1689, Russia was the world’s largest country (3 times the size of Europe) WESTERN IDEAS GAINED GROUND
His sister, Sophia, ruled as his regent early on. Her plot to kill him failed and Peter had her banished to a monastery; his mother Natalia took over as his regent Peter began ruling in his own right at age 22 He was nearly 7 feet tall and so strong he could bend a horse shoe with his bare hands Peter the Great (r. 1682-1725)
Revolt of the Strelski (noble-born Moscow garrison) was defeated by Peter in 1698 These Moscow guards had overthrown previous leaders The security of Peter’s reign was now intact Military power was Peter’s greatest concern Each Russian village was required to send recruits for the Russian army; 25-year enlistments 75% of the national budget was spent on the military Royal army of over 200,000 men plus additional 100,000 special forces of Cossacks and foreigners Established royal, military and artillery academies All young male nobles required to leave home and serve 5 years of compulsory education Large navy built on the Baltic GAINS POWER
Russia (with Poland, Denmark and Saxony as allies) vs. Sweden (under Charles XII) Battle of Poltava (1709) was the most decisive battle in Russia defeating Sweden. Treaty of Nystad (1721): Russia gained Latvia and Estonia and thus gained its “Window on the West” in the Baltic Sea. GREAT NORTHERN WAR (1700-1721)
He imported to Russia substantial numbers of western technicians and craftsmen to aid in the building of large factories By the end of his reign, Russia out-produced England in iron production (though Sweden and Germany produced more) Industrial form of serfdom existed in factories where workers could be bought and sold State-regulated monopolies created (echoed mercantilist policies of western Europe) Actually stifled economic growth Industrial serfs created inferior products MODERNIZATION AND WESTERNIZATION WAS ONE OF PETER’S MAJOR FOCUSES
ruled by decree (example of absolute power) Tsar theoretically owned all land in the state; nobles and peasants served the state No representative political bodies All landowners owed lifetime service to the state (either in the military, civil service, or court); in return they gained greater control over their serfs Table of Ranks -Set educational standards for civil servants (most of whom were nobles) Peter sought to replace old Boyar nobility with new service-based nobility loyal to the tsar Russian secret police ruthlessly and efficiently crushed opponents Taxation-Heavy on trade sales and rent, head tax on every male GOVERNMENT REFORMS?
Sought to create a city similar to Amsterdam and the Winter Palace with the grandeur of Versailles By his death, the city was the largest in northern Europe (75,000 inhabitants) became the capital of Russia Cosmopolitan in character Construction began in 1703; labor was conscripted ordered many noble families to move to the city and build their homes according to Peter’s plans Merchants and artisans also ordered to live in the city and help build it Peasants conscripted heavy labor in the city’s construction (heavy death toll—perhaps 100,000) ST. PETERSBURG
Peter’s reforms modernized Russia and brought it closer to the European mainstream More modern military and state bureaucracy. Emerging concept of interest in the state, as separate from the tsar’s interest LEGACY
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Most powerful and famous of the Prussian kings Considered to be an “Enlightened Despot” for his incorporation of Enlightenment ideas into his reign. Instituted a number of important reforms Increased Prussia’s territory at the expense of the Austrian Hapsburgs FREDERICK II (“FREDERICK THE GREAT”) – (R. 1740-1786)