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Limited Warfare in the Age of Monarchs MOI. Readings Preston and Wise pp 133-163.

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Presentation on theme: "Limited Warfare in the Age of Monarchs MOI. Readings Preston and Wise pp 133-163."— Presentation transcript:

1 Limited Warfare in the Age of Monarchs MOI

2 Readings Preston and Wise pp 133-163

3 Learning Objectives Comprehend and explain the resurrection of mobility and offensive by Malborough Know and trace the emergence of limited war, international law, and tight profession armies of Kings Know and describe the strategy, tactics and means of limited warfare Comprehend the emergence of Great Britain as dominant maritime and colonial power by end of 18 th century

4 Limited Warfare Nature of Armies –Officers from idle nobility and enlisted men from dregs of society –Professional schools for noble elite (engineering and artillery) –Limited use of mercenaries –Privileged aristocrats and middle class did not fight Discipline –Harsh discipline to keep men in army and prepared for battle –No relationship between military and civilian society –Barrack, no night marches or marches near forests, bright uniforms to spot deserters

5 Introduction Reaction to 30 years war –Revulsion so thorough it touched all aspects of international life –Sweden and Poland on their way down –Russia and Prussia on their way up –England expanding its empire –Only constant: England vs. France Mobility and Offense –Malborough, Frederick the Great International Law –Attempts to codify rules of war –No attempts to outlaw, was seen as means of achieving political ends as long as moderated

6 Limited Warfare Objectives of Limited War –Small, carefully defined –Minimal destruction to achieve goals, does not require collapse of opposing government to win –Military used to gain bargaining edge –Civilians not involved, kept away from towns

7 Limited Warfare Conduct of Limited War –Strategy Maneuver most important, try to force enemy to surrender Pinned to supply points –Tactics Close range fierce fighting over open terrain Linear tactics Shoot Second Frederick’ Oblique Order –Means Bayonet Flintlock Musket Fredrick’s improved artillery

8 Malborough’s Contributions Seen in War of Spanish Succession (1702-1713) John Churchill, Duke of Malborough –Master of his profession –Coolness on battlefield –Art of Command Had to be a diplomat at that time to lead allied army –Refined and improved tactics of Gustavus and Cromwell –Mobility and reliance on firepower rather than shock –Linear formations to exploit firepower –Integration of artillery with other arms –Tactical use of artillery with care given to site selection

9 Frederick 1740-48 War of Austrian Succession –Frederick II of Prussia made demands on Austrian throne that were refused –France, Prussia and Spain vs. Austria and England –England provided money only, and took advantage of French preoccupation to seize territory in New World and India

10 Frederick Continued Seven Years War 1756-1763 –To counter Prussia’s growing power, Austria, France, Russia and Sweden join forces –England(already in colonial and maritime war with France) aided Prussia with money –Frederick’s Campaign Objective: destruction of forces of enemy, not just occupation or defense of territory Taxes Saxony Defeats French at Rossback Battle of Luethen

11 Seven Years’ War

12 Battle of Leuthen Dec 1757 Austrian Army(80,000) in five mile long line –Hilly country –Right flank on marsh –Reserves behind partially entrenched left wing –Anticipating Frederick would envelop on left Frederick moved forward with 36,000 –Hidden by hills –Changed direction obliquely to right –Left small force for demonstration on Austrian right

13 Battle of Leuthen Cont. Austrian reserves moves to support apparently threatened right flank Frederick attacked Austrian left in two lanes echeloned from right Frederick captured 20,000 prisoners, 115 guns and killed/wounded 6,800 and lost 6,200 of his men

14 Battle of Leuthen

15 Frederick “Oblique Order” –Form of Maneuver –Parade ground formula for victory Drill was a means to an end, not just a tradition.


17 Frederick’s Results & Contributions Results –Laid foundation for a united Germany Contributions –Brutal, rigid discipline –Incredible mobility and ability to change formations and directions –Could bring fire and shock rapidly –Modern supply system –Interior lines and superb tactics on small level

18 Use of Artillery Pioneered indirect fire with high trajectory of howitzer Cavalry artillery vice horse drawn artillery –Everyone was on horseback to keep up with fast moving cavalry –Canister, shell, grapeshot Importance: –Could better aim –Closer range can take down more people

19 Emergence of Great Britain Defeat of Spanish Armada in 1588 –Difference in tactics Cardinal Richelieu’s Fleet –“ship money” tax in 1634 Anglo-Dutch Wars –Third in 1647 ended with Britain victorious –During these refined fighting technique of “line-ahead”

20 Emergence of Great Britain Cont. Defeat of France at Sea –In War of Spanish Succession drove Spain from sea –Mahan “She was the sea power” Solidification of hold –Establishment of colonial empire –Defeat of France in Seven Years’ War

21 Summary Slide International Law Armies and Discipline –Evolving from trial and error Objectives of Limited Warfare Malborough’s Contributions –Firepower over shock, linear formations, integration of artillery Frederick’s Results & Contributions –Mobility, modern supply system, small level tactics Use of Artillery Emergence of Great Britain as dominant sea power

22 Questions?

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