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Slide 1 Pax Britannica and Colonialism. Slide 2 References Preston and Wise, Men in Arms, pp. 192-208 Preston and Wise, Men in Arms, pp. 192-208 Ropp,

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 Pax Britannica and Colonialism. Slide 2 References Preston and Wise, Men in Arms, pp. 192-208 Preston and Wise, Men in Arms, pp. 192-208 Ropp,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 Pax Britannica and Colonialism

2 Slide 2 References Preston and Wise, Men in Arms, pp Preston and Wise, Men in Arms, pp Ropp, War in the Modern World, pp Ropp, War in the Modern World, pp Weigley, The American Way of War, pp Weigley, The American Way of War, pp Dupuy and Dupuy, The Encyclopedia of Military History, pp Dupuy and Dupuy, The Encyclopedia of Military History, pp

3 Slide 3 Learning Objectives Comprehend the meaning of Pax Britannica and how the British fleet provided the deterrence to renewed total war Comprehend the meaning of Pax Britannica and how the British fleet provided the deterrence to renewed total war Know and discuss the weaknesses of the British Army as demonstrated in the Crimean War Know and discuss the weaknesses of the British Army as demonstrated in the Crimean War Comprehend and explain the reasons for the revival of the race for empires and the necessary military requirements Comprehend and explain the reasons for the revival of the race for empires and the necessary military requirements Comprehend and explain how the Boer War put 19 th Century British imperialism to its most severe test Comprehend and explain how the Boer War put 19 th Century British imperialism to its most severe test

4 Slide 4 Europe circa 1815

5 Slide 5 Pax Britannica and the Race for Empires Pax Britannica Pax Britannica –1815: The Congress of Vienna removes colonies –1880: Control of major sea lines –Britain gains industrialization head start –Britain is free to use its fleet –Britain controls the seas through naval supremacy –The Crimean War Red CrossRed Cross

6 Slide 6 Pax Britannica and the Race for Empires The Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution –European powers compete –Desires for colonies grew 1914: Africa partitioned1914: Africa partitioned “Spheres of Influence”“Spheres of Influence” –Advancing equipment made British ships obsolete Capital necessary to upgrade was enormousCapital necessary to upgrade was enormous

7 Slide 7 Pax Britannica and the Race for Empires Technological Imperative Technological Imperative –Modernization needed to stay competitive –Lesser nations’ role –Numbers no longer decide victory in combat –Economic competition –End result Frenchman Jeune EcoleFrenchman Jeune Ecole Italian battleships Duilio and DandaloItalian battleships Duilio and Dandalo Submarines used as tools of warSubmarines used as tools of war

8 Slide 8 Pax Britannica and the Race for Empires Capt A.T. Mahan Capt A.T. Mahan –The Influence of Sea Power upon History –Sea power as a political and economic force –Mahan’s philosophies Germans built a “risk fleet” Germans built a “risk fleet” Britain aspires to maintain its supremacy Britain aspires to maintain its supremacy 1907: Dreadnought built 1907: Dreadnought built

9 Slide 9 Pax Britannica and the Race for Empires The Boer War The Boer War –Technology and anti-imperialist sentiment’s impact –Britain commits 500,000 troops –Boer tactics Inadequacies of British tactics Inadequacies of British tactics The British success at Boer The British success at Boer

10 Slide 10 Pax Britannica and the Race of Empires The Modern Era The Modern Era –British lessen military burden –Britain’s superiority steadily erodes –1907: End of Pax Britannica

11 Slide 11 The Prussian Influence Franco-Prussian War Portrait

12 Slide 12 Learning Objectives Comprehend and explain the struggle for dominance between Prussian and Austrian forces Comprehend and explain the struggle for dominance between Prussian and Austrian forces Comprehend and explain the emergence of the German General Staff under Moltke Comprehend and explain the emergence of the German General Staff under Moltke Comprehend and explain the Prussian victory in the Franco-Prussian War Comprehend and explain the Prussian victory in the Franco-Prussian War Compare and contrast Moltke and Bismarck as grand strategists Compare and contrast Moltke and Bismarck as grand strategists

13 Slide 13 The Struggle for Dominance The Napoleonic Destruction – power void The Napoleonic Destruction – power void : Austria and Prussia struggle : Austria and Prussia struggle –Prussian Zollerein gains control –1850: Treaty of Olmuetz 1864: Schleswig-Holstein War 1864: Schleswig-Holstein War –Prussia & Austria defeat Denmark –Joint control of land disputed while under joint control of Prussia & Austria –Austria defeated

14 Slide 14 Prussian Preeminence 1867: Northern Germany joins Prussia 1867: Northern Germany joins Prussia Fear of France forces Southern alliance Fear of France forces Southern alliance 1870: Franco-Prussian War 1870: Franco-Prussian War –Detailed mobilization plans and flexibility of Prussia –Moltke and General Staff key –Superior Prussian artillery –Lack of planning of French –Lack of French economy of force force

15 Slide 15 General Staff of Prussia Originates after Napoleonic Period Originates after Napoleonic Period –Quasi-autonomy –Attention to doctrine and theory –Rotation of officers –Separate “planning and education” branch

16 Slide 16 Moltke & Bismarck Otto von Bismarck’s accomplishments Otto von Bismarck’s accomplishments –Limited aims of three wars of unification –Diplomacy after unification 1857: Count Helmuth von Moltke – Chief of General Staff 1857: Count Helmuth von Moltke – Chief of General Staff –Attained by intellectual achievement –Lacked Bismarck’s strategic abilities –Establishes Railway Section Leads to lightning fast mobilization of forcesLeads to lightning fast mobilization of forces

17 Slide 17 Summary Pax Britannica Pax Britannica Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution Boer War and end of British supremacy Boer War and end of British supremacy Prussian Influences Prussian Influences Unification of Germany Unification of Germany

18 Slide 18 Questions?


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