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How was Napoleon defeated?

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Presentation on theme: "How was Napoleon defeated?"— Presentation transcript:

1 How was Napoleon defeated?
The Napoleonic Era Chapter 4: Section 5 Essential Questions: What course did Napoleon’s career take between 1799 and 1804? What powers did he hold? What effect did Napoleon have on the rest of Europe, and what conflicts emerged? How was Napoleon defeated?

2 Napoleon Bonaparte

3 What course did Napoleon’s career take between 1799 and 1804?
His government kept the form of a “republic”, however, the coup d’etat of 1799 made him a dictator of France , Napoleon influenced events in France/Europe so much that the time period is known as the Napoleonic Era or the Age of Napoleon

4 Why did the people accept his dictatorship?
They wanted stability Others were afraid to protest Napoleon supported many ideas of the revolution However, “liberty” under Napoleon meant strict control because he believed that the people should obey the orders given by a leader

5 Napoleon and the Consulate
Napoleon reorganized France and gave himself unlimited power The executive branch, made up of three consuls, gave its name to the first five years of Napoleon’s rule – the Consulate He took the title First Consul (Ancient Rome) Commanded army/navy Appointed/dismissed any officials Proposed new laws

6 Consulate = Real Power??? Not exactly, the legislative bodies had no real power; they simply passed all of Napoleon’s decrees! Napoleon submitted his new constitution to the people for a vote; procedure known as a plebiscite (yes or no vote - could not make any changes to it) Even with these limitations, majority of French voters approved new consitution!

7 What is Napoleon BEST remembered for?
Napoleon’s work in government had more importance than his military victories French law system was reorganized and called the Napoleonic Code Napoleon did all of the following… Established the Bank of France Established a public education system Mended relationship with Roman Catholic Church and French gov. With skillful diplomacy, Napoleon destroyed the Second Coalition and signed a peace treaty with Great Britain.

8 Napoleon as Emperor Napoleon’s supporters wanted to increase his power (make it permanent/hereditary) In another plebiscite, people voted to declare France an empire in 1804 He became Emperor Napoleon I Pope came to Paris to crown new emperor Napoleon seized crown from the Pope to show that he gave himself total power and authority and NO ONE ELSE! Throughout Europe, nations wanted to destroy his empire


10 Third Coalition Great Britain became Napoleon’s most determined adversary, feared his empire would threaten their… Commerce, Empire, and Control of the seas! Third Coalition was formed to defeat Napoleon in 1805 Austria, Russia, and Sweden allied themselves with Great Britain (Spain allied with France) British naval fleet defeated a combined French/Spanish fleet in 1805 Napoleon was more successful with land battles in Austria and Russia


12 The Continental System
Napoleon ordered a blockade of the British and forbade anyone from French Empire to trade with the British Called the Continental System… because Napoleon controlled so much of the continent of Europe British responded with their own blockade; ordered ships of neutral countries to stop at British ports to get license before trading with France or its allies Both blockades affected the United States; British ships did most damage to American trade (conflict helped bring about War of 1812 with British) December 1805, Napoleon smashed combined forces of Russia and Austria at Austerlitz…soon Coalition collapsed

13 The Reorganization of Europe
By 1808, Napoleon completely dominated Europe Forced Austria and Prussia to sign humiliating peace treaties Organized German states into the Confederation of the Rhine Abolished the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 Organized Italian States Placed members of his family on the thrones of the countries he had conquered!


15 Nationalism and Napoleon
Wherever the French army went, they put the Napoleonic Code into effect Without intending to, the French also helped awaken in the people they conquered a spirit of nationalism (or love of one’s country rather than of one’s native region) This led to the people wanting to rid themselves of French rule Now Napoleon’s enemies grew stronger and they will reassemble!

16 The Peninsula War 1807 Portugal refused to observe the Continental System; needed trade with Great Britain French army occupied Portugal in retaliation and drove king into exile Napoleon then decided to conquer Spain Forced Spanish king to abdicate and put his brother (Joseph) in charge Spanish rose up with the help of the British 1814, the Spanish drove out the French (including Joseph) The Peninsula War drained French military resources

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