Presentation on theme: "How was Napoleon defeated?"— Presentation transcript:
1 How was Napoleon defeated? The Napoleonic EraChapter 4: Section 5Essential Questions:What course did Napoleon’s career take between 1799 and 1804? What powers did he hold?What effect did Napoleon have on the rest of Europe, and what conflicts emerged?How was Napoleon defeated?
3 What course did Napoleon’s career take between 1799 and 1804? His government kept the form of a “republic”, however, the coup d’etat of 1799 made him a dictator of France, Napoleon influenced events in France/Europe so much that the time period is known as the Napoleonic Era or the Age of Napoleon
4 Why did the people accept his dictatorship? They wanted stabilityOthers were afraid to protestNapoleon supported many ideas of the revolutionHowever, “liberty” under Napoleon meant strict control because he believed that the people should obey the orders given by a leader
5 Napoleon and the Consulate Napoleon reorganized France and gave himself unlimited powerThe executive branch, made up of three consuls, gave its name to the first five years of Napoleon’s rule – the ConsulateHe took the title First Consul (Ancient Rome)Commanded army/navyAppointed/dismissed any officialsProposed new laws
6 Consulate = Real Power???Not exactly, the legislative bodies had no real power; they simply passed all of Napoleon’s decrees!Napoleon submitted his new constitution to the people for a vote; procedure known as a plebiscite (yes or no vote - could not make any changes to it)Even with these limitations, majority of French voters approved new consitution!
7 What is Napoleon BEST remembered for? Napoleon’s work in government had more importance than his military victoriesFrench law system was reorganized and called the Napoleonic CodeNapoleon did all of the following…Established the Bank of FranceEstablished a public education systemMended relationship with Roman Catholic Church and French gov.With skillful diplomacy, Napoleon destroyed the Second Coalition and signed a peace treaty with Great Britain.
8 Napoleon as EmperorNapoleon’s supporters wanted to increase his power (make it permanent/hereditary)In another plebiscite, people voted to declare France an empire in 1804He became Emperor Napoleon IPope came to Paris to crown new emperorNapoleon seized crown from the Pope to show that he gave himself total power and authority and NO ONE ELSE!Throughout Europe, nations wanted to destroy his empire
10 Third CoalitionGreat Britain became Napoleon’s most determined adversary, feared his empire would threaten their…Commerce, Empire, and Control of the seas!Third Coalition was formed to defeat Napoleon in 1805Austria, Russia, and Sweden allied themselves with Great Britain (Spain allied with France)British naval fleet defeated a combined French/Spanish fleet in 1805Napoleon was more successful with land battles in Austria and Russia
12 The Continental System Napoleon ordered a blockade of the British and forbade anyone from French Empire to trade with the BritishCalled the Continental System… because Napoleon controlled so much of the continent of EuropeBritish responded with their own blockade; ordered ships of neutral countries to stop at British ports to get license before trading with France or its alliesBoth blockades affected the United States; British ships did most damage to American trade (conflict helped bring about War of 1812 with British)December 1805, Napoleon smashed combined forces of Russia and Austria at Austerlitz…soon Coalition collapsed
13 The Reorganization of Europe By 1808, Napoleon completely dominated EuropeForced Austria and Prussia to sign humiliating peace treatiesOrganized German states into the Confederation of the RhineAbolished the Holy Roman Empire in 1806Organized Italian StatesPlaced members of his family on the thrones of the countries he had conquered!
15 Nationalism and Napoleon Wherever the French army went, they put the Napoleonic Code into effectWithout intending to, the French also helped awaken in the people they conquered a spirit of nationalism (or love of one’s country rather than of one’s native region)This led to the people wanting to rid themselves of French ruleNow Napoleon’s enemies grew stronger and they will reassemble!
16 The Peninsula War1807 Portugal refused to observe the Continental System; needed trade with Great BritainFrench army occupied Portugal in retaliation and drove king into exileNapoleon then decided to conquer SpainForced Spanish king to abdicate and put his brother (Joseph) in chargeSpanish rose up with the help of the British1814, the Spanish drove out the French (including Joseph)The Peninsula War drained French military resources