Chapter 9.2 Arabian Peninsula and Muhammad APWH 2013
Review Religious conflicts existed between the proud Christian Byzantine Empire and Zoroastrian Sasanids Arab nomads benefit from conflict economically and intellectually Increased contact with Christians spreads knowledge into Arabian peninsula
Geography of Arabian Peninsula Highlands of Yemen in South, fertile and watered by spring monsoons. Interior mountains to east drier, but in some places enough water to support farming.
Southern region cut off from northeast by Arabian desert. Known as “Empty Quarter” During 7th century, people in southern Arabia knew more about Africa, India and the Persian Gulf than about the center of the great peninsula!
Geographic Determinism Traditional occupation farming Camel and sheep herding nomads lived in the desert.
Caravan Trade Several kingdoms rose and fell due to trans- Arabian trade routes. Frankincense and myrrh exported north (Spice and perfume route). Pastoralists and Nomads acted as guides Providing camels and safe passage across desert.
Caravan Cities Emerged along routes. Petra in southern Jordan Palmyra in northern Syria Ruled by Bedouin chiefs Absorbed by Roman empire New trade goods by 100 CE included Camels, leather, gold and minerals
Mecca Late blooming caravan city Halfway between Yemen and Syria 500 settled by nomadic group called Quraysh (koo-RYYSH) Location away from Byzantine Syria, Sasanid Iraq and Ethiopian controlled Yemen provided safety.
Muhammad Born in Mecca 570 Raised as an orphan by his uncle Married and had several children. Only son died Worked in trade Married a Quraysh widow named Khadija
Muhammad Began meditating around 610 During “Night of Power and Excellence” is visited by an angel of God Conceived Islam after experiencing revelations from the angel Gabriel Revelations continue until his death.
Arab Spirituality Jinns - unseen desert spirits Shaitans - demons Believed in oracles, seers Poets believed to be possessed by a jinn
Muhammad’s Teaching 1.One God created everything 2.At the end time all will be judged by sins vs. good deeds. 3.The blameless go to paradise. 4.Sinful will taste hellfire Muslim - Means “one who makes submission to the will of God.”
Revelations include mentions of Noah, Moses and Jesus Muslims consider Abraham/Ibrahim the first Muslim Muhammad’s revelations criticize Jews and Christians for not preserving God’s revealed words Islam means “submission/surrender to the will of God”.
Hijira “Muhammad’s flight” 622 Muhammad flees from Mecca to Medina. Meccan leaders were threatened by his popularity and drove him out. Medina located 215 miles to North Date marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar
Umma Before leaving for Medina, major kin groups meet with Muhammad and promise to protect him. Binding themselves together into a single umma - unified community of believers that accepted Islam Believed that Muhammad was the “Messenger of God” Plans are made to return to Mecca and conquer it.
Ka’ba Religious shrine located in Mecca Reason Muslims pray towards Mecca Mecca surrendered to Medina and Muhammad because of wars led by Muhammad Mecca becomes a new state based on a common religious faith.
Medina also becomes a Muslim city- state. Home to many Meccan refugees Not all of Muhammad’s original followers became Muslims.
Review and Preview Foundations of Islam 1. Geographic Determinism 2. Muhammad’s life 570 - 632 3. Caliphate established after death Quran created 650 Sunni v. Shi’ite split 4. Umayyad Caliphate 661-750 = Spread of Empire 5. Abbasid Caliphate 747 – 850 = Iranian Scholars create Islamic fundamentalism
Muhammad’s Death 632 dies after brief illness. Father in law of favorite wife A’isha chosen as new leader by kin group elders Abu Bakr - chosen as caliph after Muhammad’s death. Kalifa = successor (caliph)
Five Pillars Abu Bakr assembles basic religious codes. Basis of Muslim religious practices 1. There is only one God and Muhammad is his messenger 2. Prayer 5 times a day 3. Fasting during lunar month of Ramadan 4. paying alms 5. Pilgrimage to Mecca once in life
Quran Abu Bakr collects and organizes all the records of Muhammad’s teachings. Completed in 650 “Recitation” Contains Muhammad’s revelations from the arch angel Gabriel Seen by Muslims as the word of God
Islamic Split After Muhammad’s death umma splits after third caliph Uthman is assassinated in 656. Sunnis - followers of the “tradition” of the community. Leadership picked by council of elders. Shi’ites -supporters of Muhammad’s son in law Ali. Supported by Muhammad’s son-in laws and military
Battle of the Camel 656 Ali (Shi ‘ites) defeats opposition – A’isha (Muhammad’s first wife) and two of Muhammad’s close friends (Sunni). Ali is betrayed and assasinated.
Battle of the Camel Ali’s son will also be assassinated Shi’ites – sect established by supporters of Ali. Will be supported by Muhammad’s relatives and military groups.