I. The Origins of Islam A.The Arabian Peninsula Before Muhammad 1.Geography Only a small strip of fertile land in south of Saudi Arabia Few oases The rest is desert
I. The Origins of Islam 2.The Arab People Farmers, sailors, pastoral nomads (Bedouins) Bedouins provided camels, guides and safe passage across Arabian desert Caravan trade linked Arabian Peninsula to Mesopotamia and Mediterranean
I. The Origins of Islam 3. Beliefs Nomads were polytheistic Worshipped natural forces and celestial bodies Familiar with other religions, including Christianity, & Judaism
I. The Origins of Islam 4. Mecca Caravan city between Yemen and Syria. A religious center attracted nomads to worship the idols enshrined in a small cubical shrine called the Ka’ba.
I. The Origins of Islam B. Muhammad and Mecca 1. Early Life born in Mecca in 570, grew up as an orphan involved in the caravan trade
I. The Origins of Islam 2. Revelations In 610 he began receiving revelations Others in his community believed that he might be possessed by a spirit. Revelations continued until death in 632
I. The Origins of Islam 3. Development of Islam The message of Muhammad’s revelations was that there is one god, Allah, all people ought to submit to him. At the final judgment, those who had submitted to Allah would go to paradise; those who had not, to hell. Muhammad’s revelations were considered to be the final revelations, -following and superseding the earlier revelations of God to: Noah, Moses, and Jesus.
I. The Origins of Islam 4. Islam Islam = the will of God Muslim = one who submits to God
I. The Origins of Islam 5. The Five Pillars of Islam What does it mean to be a Muslim? (1) Belief in one God, with Muhammad as his prophet (2) Five Daily Prayers (3) Charity for the needy (4) Fasting from sun up to sun down during the month of Ramadan (5) Pilgrimage to Mecca, the Hajj, for those who are physically and financially able
I. The Origins of Islam C. The Formation of the Umma 1.The Hijira Mecca’s leaders feared Muhammad and his followers Muhammad and his followers fled to Medina, 215 miles north This marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar (Year 1 AH)
I. The Origins of Islam 2.Medina The leaders of Medina agreed to protect Muhammad and his followers Formed a single umma, a community based on acceptance of Islam Muhammad’s followers conquered Mecca in 630 Removed polytheistic idols from the Ka’ba
Read The Last Sermon Answer questions on a separate sheet of paper
I. The Origins of Islam 3. Crisis Muhammad died in 632 Muslims now had to find a new leader Muhammad did not name a successor
I. The Origins of Islam 4. Caliph Muslims chose Abu-Bakr who was a loyal friend of Muhammad He became the first caliph Caliph – (kay-lif) means successor or deputy The caliph ruled over a caliphate
I. The Origins of Islam 5. Abu-Bakr Organized Islamic religious practices -Five Pillars of Islam -Organized the revelations of Muhammad into the Quran
I. The Origins of Islam After Muhammad died some Muslims: – Refused to pay taxes – Said they were prophets themselves – Some tribes abandoned Islam Abu-Bakr used the military to gain authority.
I. The Origins of Islam 6. Divisions Dispute over succession to the caliphate 3 rd caliph, Uthman was assassinated in 656 Ali, nominated to be Caliph -first cousin to Muhammad and husband to Muhammad’s daughter, Fatima Ali’s nomination was opposed -civil war broke out
I. The Origins of Islam The governor of Syria, Mu’awiya, kinsman of Uthman led the resistance to Ali -Umayya clan Arbitrators tried to settle dispute Ruled that Uthman did not deserve death, Ali had should not have accepted the Caliphate -Ali rejected ruling Ali was assassinated by one of his own followers for agreeing to arbitration
I. The Origins of Islam 7. Umayyad Caliphate Mu’awiya chose his own son, Yazid to succeed him Umayyad Caliphate
I. The Origins of Islam 8. Sunni – Shi’ite split Shi’ites believed Ali was rightful successor to Muhammad Imam – leader of the Muslim community Believed that Caliph was a secular position, Iman was a religious position Imam should be descendants of Ali Believed in a messiah, the Hidden Imam, would return before Final Judgment
I. The Origins of Islam 8. Continued Those who supported the first three Caliphs became known as Sunnis Consider the Caliph to be Imams