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North Africa and Southwest AsiaPhysical Geography ©2012, TESCCC World Geography Unit 8, Lesson 1
Factors of Settlement What factors influence where people live within a certain area? Generate a list of ideas on the board or using an overhead projector (data projector). Discuss the answers that are generated by students. Now, let’s look at the factors. Follow up questions; Teacher can further the discussion by asking students the following questions: Do you think these factors are the same no matter where you live? What kind of factors would make you move somewhere else? Do you think that people move if things change in their physical environment? ©2012, TESCCC
Factors of Settlement Physical Factors- most settlements cluster near bodies of water such as rivers and gulfs. People also settle in areas that have access to fresh water. Low-lying areas near fertile soil is attracts settlement. Temperate and mild climate regions are also regions of large settlement. Human Factors- people settle in areas where they have access to natural resources, economic activities, and along transportation routes. ©2012, TESCCC
How do geographers study human settlement?A number of tools are available for geographers to study settlement patterns. These include GIS Maps (atlas) Government data (charts, graphs, reports) ©2012, TESCCC
So where were the first settlements located in North Africa and Southwest Asia?Fertile Crescent (Tigris and Euphrates River Valley) (Mesopotamia) Nile River Valley ©2012, TESCCC
Mesopotamia The earliest cities have been uncovered in the Tigris and Euphrates River valleys. About 3500 B.C. civilizations began here due to the rich soil created by the rivers. Mesopotamia is the land that is located between the two rivers. Fertile Crescent refers to an area of fertile soil stretching in an arc from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates. ©2012, TESCCC
Nile River Valley The annual flooding of the river brought nutrients to the soil and allowed farmers to grow crops in abundance. Farmers were able to predict the time of the floods and farming became more reliable. People relied less on nomadic ways of life. Farmers learned to retain water for use later in the year by developing an irrigation system. The Nile River is the longest in the world. It flows into the Mediterranean Sea. The beginning of the river is located in the south. A common misconception is that the river flows backwards. However, the waters flow from south to north theoretically, but the waters are actually flowing from a higher elevation to a lower one. ©2012, TESCCC
The Nile Delta at Night ©2012, TESCCC
Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf is located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula. It is an extension of the Indian Ocean. The discovery of oil, transformed the region to one of desolation to one of commercial wealth as the demand for oil globally exploded. ©2012, TESCCC
Dubai in the mid 20th centuryThen…. Now Dubai is major city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The UAE’s per capita GDP is on par with those of leading West European nations. Its generosity with oil revenues and its moderate foreign policy stance have allowed the UAE to play a vital role in the affairs of the region. For more than three decades, oil and global finance drove the UAE's economy. However, in , the confluence of falling oil prices, collapsing real estate prices, and the international banking crisis hit the UAE especially hard. Source: CIA Factbook Dubai in the mid 20th century Dubai today ©2012, TESCCC
Sahara The largest desert in the world.It stretches from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea. Temperatures can rise to over 130 degrees. The desert consists of sand, mountains, gravel, and rock formations. Under ground water supplies-aquifers- can come to the surface. They can create an oasis. In an oasis wildlife and vegetation can survive. ©2012, TESCCC
Sahel Sahel means shore of the desert.The Sahel is a narrow band of dry grassland that runs east to west along the edge of the Sahara. It receives very little rainfall. People use the Sahel for farming and herding. The Sahara has spread into the Sahel leading to desertification. ©2012, TESCCC
Population DistributionThe majority of the population in this realm lives not in the dry arid regions, but around water sources. The Nile Mediterranean Sea Euphrates and Tigris Basin Lower mountain slopes of Iran, south of the Caspian Sea ©2012, TESCCC
Water- A Renewable or Finite Resource?Water is critical for life, food production, and industrial processes. 9 of of the 14 Southwest Asian states face water shortage conditions. The most concentrated region of water scarcity in the world. The North African states all have rates of natural increase above 2.0%, increasing the stress on water sources. Teacher may want to use CIA Factbook to look at the rates of natural increase of specific countries. Show students how to analyze this data to extend their understanding of evels of development. ©2012, TESCCC
Other Noteable Physical Features of North Africa and Southwest AsiaAtlas Mountains Nubian Desert Red Sea Gulf of Aden Strait of Hormuz Anatolia Black Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Arabian Sea Rub al Khali (Empty Quarter) Teacher should have students identify these physical features on a map. ©2012, TESCCC
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