Presentation on theme: "Oxy-Acids You will need to know these common oxy- acids (with a 100% confidence level!) nitric acidHNO 3 chloric acidHClO 3 carbonicacidH 2 CO 3 sulphuric."— Presentation transcript:
Oxy-Acids You will need to know these common oxy- acids (with a 100% confidence level!) nitric acidHNO 3 chloric acidHClO 3 carbonicacidH 2 CO 3 sulphuric acidH 2 SO 4 phosphoric acidH 3 PO 4
Memory Aid - Acids The following expression gives you a memory aid that may help working out the formula for the various oxy-acids. Nick the Camel had a Clam for Supper in Phoenix First letter(s) identify the acid # vowels = # H’s # consonants = # O’s
Memory Aid - Acids Nick the Camel had a Clam for Supper in Phoenix First letter(s) identify the acid # vowels = # H’s # consonants = # O’s Nick.......... N, nitrogen, nitric 1 vowel, 3 consonants HNO 3
Oxy-Acid Formulae Nick the Camel had a Clam for Supper in Phoenix What is the formula for: chloric acid? HClO 3 phosphoric acid? H 3 PO 4
Oxy-Acid Radicals New negative ions/radicals are produced when you remove the hydrogens from each oxy-acid. Each of these new ions/radicals are treated as a group/unit. The valence of the ion/radical corresponds to the number of hydrogens removed.
Oxy-Acid Radicals Consider sulphuric acid: H 2 SO 4 Removing the 2 H’s gives the ion/radical: SO 4 2- this ion/radical is called sulphate; its valence is 2
Oxy-Acid Radicals You do not need to memorize all of these - you will be provided with a list for quizzes/tests/exam. The negative ions/radicals related to the oxy-acids can now be used to form compounds.
Compounds with Oxy-Acid Ions/Radicals Write the formula for aluminum nitrate: Valence of aluminum is 3 Val. of nitrate is 1 (nitrate: NO 3 - from HNO 3 ) Keep in mind that the nitrate ion is a group. Use our cross-over technique to show 3 nitrate groups: Al(NO 3 ) 3 (You read this as “AlNO3 taken 3 times”)
And Still More Examples Mg(ClO 3 ) 2 magnesium chlorate ZnCO 3 zinc carbonate LiNO 3 lithium nitrate Y 2 (SO 4 ) 3 yttrium sulphate Co 3 (PO 4 ) 2 cobalt(II) phosphate * * NOTE: When multiple valences are involved, you do not use the prefix system with radicals.
Special Ions/Radicals. You will also have to be able to give names/write formulae using these special ions/radicals (also on the list provided). NH 4 + - ammonium ion OH - - hydroxide ion HCO 3 - - bicarbonate ion (also called hydrogen carbonate) Each has a val. of 1 ; each is a group/unit.
Examples using Special Ions/Radicals ammonium oxide(NH 4 ) 2 O zinc hydroxideZn(OH) 2 iron(III) bicarbonateFe(HCO 3 ) 3 NH 4 ClO 3 ammonium chlorate LiOHlithium hydroxide
More Examples with Special Ions/Radicals ammonium chlorideNH 4 Cl tin(IV) bicarbonateSn(HCO 3 ) 4 iron(III) hydroxideFe(OH) 3 ammonium sulphate(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 Ba(OH) 2 barium hydroxide NH 4 HCO 3 ammonium bicarbonate
Other Special Compounds There are several special compounds you will encounter in this course. We ask that you commit this one to memory: hydrogen peroxideH 2 O 2