# Yesterday’s Homework Questions:p. 148 #1-5 p. 150 #1-3 p. 153 #10, 11.

## Presentation on theme: "Yesterday’s Homework Questions:p. 148 #1-5 p. 150 #1-3 p. 153 #10, 11."— Presentation transcript:

Yesterday’s Homework Questions:p. 148 #1-5 p. 150 #1-3 p. 153 #10, 11

Ions! SNC2D

The Why of Ions Atoms are most stable (and therefore happy) when they have ?

The Why of Ions Atoms are most stable (and therefore happy) when they have full outer shells.

The How of Ions Atoms that have fewer electrons in their outer shells than it would take to fill that shell will preferentially lose electrons.

The How of Ions E.g. Sodium has 1 valence electron. It would need to gain 7 to fill that shell. So it loses 1 instead. It now has fewer shells, but the last one is full.

The How of Ions Because sodium has lost a negatively-charged electron, it now has a ?

The How of Ions Because sodium has lost a negatively-charged electron, it now has a positive charge. Positively-charged ions are called cations.

The How of Ions The elements that form positively-charged ions are metals.

Valence Charge The charge on an ion is said to be its valence charge, or simply valence. E.g. The valence of sodium is ?

Valence Charge The charge on an ion is said to be its valence charge, or simply valence. E.g. The valence of sodium is +1 or 1+. Let’s look at some more metal ions....

Valence Practice Given the following Bohr diagrams, what will the valence of the ions be?

Valence Practice Given the following Bohr diagrams, what will the valence of the ions be?

Valence Practice Given the following Bohr diagrams, what will the valence of the ions be?

Valence Practice Given the following Bohr diagrams, what will the valence of the ions be?

Valence Practice Given the following Bohr diagrams, what will the valence of the ions be?

Valence Practice Given the following Bohr diagrams, what will the valence of the ions be?

Valence Charge Note that sodium and lithium, both in the 1 st column, have a valence of 1+. And magnesium and calcium, both in the 2 nd column, have a valence of 2+. Since elements in the same column or family on the periodic table have the same number of ?

Valence Charge Note that sodium and lithium, both in the 1 st column, have a valence of 1+. And magnesium and calcium, both in the 2 nd column, have a valence of 2+. Since elements in the same column or family on the periodic table have the same number of valence electrons, they will typically form ions in the same way and have the same valence charge.

Valence Charge Some metals can form ions in two different ways and have two possible valences; these metals are said to be ?

Valence Charge Some metals can form ions in two different ways and have two possible valences; these metals are said to be multivalent. E.g. the valence of lead is ?

Valence Charge Some metals can form ions in two different ways and have two possible valences; these metals are said to be multivalent. E.g. the valence of lead is 2+ or 4+. To indicate which ion we are dealing with, we write the valence charge in Roman numerals after the name of the metal. E.g. lead (?) or lead (?)

Valence Charge Some metals can form ions in two different ways and have two possible valences; these metals are said to be multivalent. E.g. the valence of lead is 2+ or 4+. To indicate which ion we are dealing with, we write the valence charge in Roman numerals after the name of the metal. E.g. lead (II) or lead (?)

Valence Charge Some metals can form ions in two different ways and have two possible valences; these metals are said to be multivalent. E.g. the valence of lead is 2+ or 4+. To indicate which ion we are dealing with, we write the valence charge in Roman numerals after the name of the metal. E.g. lead (II) or lead (IV)

The How of Ions Atoms that have more electrons in their outer shells than it would take to fill that shell will preferentially gain electrons.

The How of Ions E.g. Chlorine has 7 valence electrons. It would need to gain 1 to fill that shell. So it just gains 1 (that was given up by a metal).

The How of Ions Because chlorine has gained a negatively-charged electron, it now has a negative charge. Negatively-charged ions are called anions.

The How of Ions The elements that form negatively-charged ions are non-metals.

The How of Ions Non-metals, when they form ions, change their names to: the first syllable + the suffix “ide”

Anion names chlorinefluorinebromineoxygensulphurnitrogenphosphorus

chlorinechloride fluorinebromineoxygensulphurnitrogenphosphorus

Anion names chlorinechloride fluorinefluoride bromineoxygensulphurnitrogenphosphorus

Anion names chlorinechloride fluorinefluoride bromine bromide oxygensulphurnitrogenphosphorus

Anion names chlorinechloride fluorinefluoride bromine bromide oxygen oxide sulphurnitrogenphosphorus

Anion names chlorinechloride fluorinefluoride bromine bromide oxygen oxide sulphur sulphide nitrogenphosphorus

Anion names chlorinechloride fluorinefluoride bromine bromide oxygen oxide sulphur sulphide nitrogennitride phosphorus

Anion names chlorinechloride fluorinefluoride bromine bromide oxygen oxide sulphur sulphide nitrogennitride phosphorusphosphide

Valence Practice Given the following Bohr diagram, what will the valence of the ion be?

Valence Practice Given the following Bohr diagram, what will the valence of the ion be?

Polyatomic Ions A polyatomic ion is a group of atoms bonded together (by shared electrons) that acts as a single ion. (Ref. p. 161.) E.g. nitrate NO 3 1-

Nick & his Polyatomic Ions Nick the Camel had a Clam for Supper in Phoenix

Nick & his Polyatomic Ions Nick the Camel had a Clam for Supper in Phoenix First consonants = Name of the ion e.g. N from Nick stands for:

Nick & his Polyatomic Ions Nick the Camel had a Clam for Supper in Phoenix First consonants = Name of the ion e.g. N from Nick stands for: Nitrate

Nick & his Polyatomic Ions Nick the Camel had a Clam for Supper in Phoenix First consonants = Name of the ion # of vowels = valence e.g. Nick has 1 vowel so it has:

Nick & his Polyatomic Ions Nick the Camel had a Clam for Supper in Phoenix First consonants = Name of the ion # of vowels = valence e.g. Nick has 1 vowel so it has: a charge of 1-

Nick & his Polyatomic Ions Nick the Camel had a Clam for Supper in Phoenix First consonants = Name of the ion # of vowels = valence # of consonants = # of oxygens e.g. Nick has 3 consonants so it has:

Nick & his Polyatomic Ions Nick the Camel had a Clam for Supper in Phoenix First consonants = Name of the ion # of vowels = valence # of consonants = # of oxygens e.g. Nick has 3 consonants so it has: 3 oxygens

Nick & his Polyatomic Ions Nick the Camel had a Clam for Supper in Phoenix Write the formulae for the corresponding ions Nick = Camel = Clam = Supper = Phoenix =

Nick & his Polyatomic Ions Nick the Camel had a Clam for Supper in Phoenix Write the formulae for the corresponding ions Nick =nitrateNO 3 1- Camel = Clam = Supper = Phoenix =

Nick & his Polyatomic Ions Nick the Camel had a Clam for Supper in Phoenix Write the formulae for the corresponding ions Nick =nitrateNO 3 1- Camel =carbonateCO 3 2- Clam = Supper = Phoenix =

Nick & his Polyatomic Ions Nick the Camel had a Clam for Supper in Phoenix Write the formulae for the corresponding ions Nick =nitrateNO 3 1- Camel =carbonateCO 3 2- Clam =chlorateClO 3 1- Supper = Phoenix =

Nick & his Polyatomic Ions Nick the Camel had a Clam for Supper in Phoenix Write the formulae for the corresponding ions Nick =nitrateNO 3 1- Camel =carbonateCO 3 2- Clam =chlorateClO 3 1- Supper =sulfateSO 4 2- Phoenix =

Nick & his Polyatomic Ions Nick the Camel had a Clam for Supper in Phoenix Write the formulae for the corresponding ions Nick =nitrateNO 3 1- Camel =carbonateCO 3 2- Clam =chlorateClO 3 1- Supper =sulfateSO 4 2- Phoenix =phosphatePO 4 3-

Nick & his Polyatomic Ions One extra oxygen "per-ate" NormalOne less oxygenTwo less oxygens Nick nitrate NO 3 1- Camel carbonate CO 3 2- Clam chlorate ClO 3 1- Supper sulfate SO 4 2- Phoenix phosphate PO 4 3-

Nick & his Polyatomic Ions One extra oxygen "per-ate" NormalOne less oxygenTwo less oxygens NO 4 1- pernitrate Nick nitrate NO 3 1- CO 4 2- percarbonate Camel carbonate CO 3 2- ClO 4 1- perchlorate Clam chlorate ClO 3 1- SO 5 2- persulfate Supper sulfate SO 4 2- PO 5 3- perphosphate Phoenix phosphate PO 4 3-

Nick & his Polyatomic Ions One extra oxygen "per-ate" NormalOne less oxygen "ite" Two less oxygens "hypo-ite" NO 4 1- pernitrate Nick nitrate NO 3 1- NO 2 1- nitrite CO 3 2- percarbonate Camel carbonate CO 3 2- CO 2 2- carbonite ClO 3 1- perchlorate Clam chlorate ClO 3 1- ClO 2 1- chlorite SO 4 2- persulfate Supper sulfate SO 4 2- SO 3 2- sulfite PO 4 3- perphosphate Phoenix phosphate PO 4 3- PO 3 3- phosphite

Nick & his Polyatomic Ions One extra oxygen "per-ate" NormalOne less oxygen "ite" Two less oxygens "hypo-ite" NO 4 1- pernitrate Nick nitrate NO 3 1- NO 2 1- nitrite NO 1- hyponitrite CO 3 2- percarbonate Camel carbonate CO 3 2- CO 2 2- carbonite CO 2- hypocarbonite ClO 3 1- perchlorate Clam chlorate ClO 3 1- ClO 2 1- chlorite ClO 1- hypochlorite SO 4 2- persulfate Supper sulfate SO 4 2- SO 3 2- sulfite SO 2 2- hyposulfite PO 4 3- perphosphate Phoenix phosphate PO 4 3- PO 3 3- phosphite PO 2 3- hypophosphite

Three More You should also be familiar with: HCO 3 - hydrogen carbonate (or bicarbonate) OH - hydroxide NH 4 + ammonium

Tune in next time Tomorrow we will discuss ionic compounds and solutions of ionic compounds – and we will test for ions in solutions. For now, practice getting to know your ions with ion flash cards.

Download ppt "Yesterday’s Homework Questions:p. 148 #1-5 p. 150 #1-3 p. 153 #10, 11."

Similar presentations