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Ionic Compounds. What’s a chemical bond? A chemical bond is the force that holds two atoms together A chemical bond is the force that holds two atoms.

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Presentation on theme: "Ionic Compounds. What’s a chemical bond? A chemical bond is the force that holds two atoms together A chemical bond is the force that holds two atoms."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ionic Compounds

2 What’s a chemical bond? A chemical bond is the force that holds two atoms together A chemical bond is the force that holds two atoms together Two types of chemical bonds: Two types of chemical bonds: –Ionic –Covalent

3 Why do atoms form bonds? Formation of chemical bonds is due to number of valence electrons Formation of chemical bonds is due to number of valence electrons Why do valence electrons play such an important role? Why do valence electrons play such an important role? How many electrons do atoms want to have in their outermost energy level? – Because elements react to get the stable electron structure of a noble gas 8

4 The Octet Rule States that atoms lose, gain or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of eight valence electrons States that atoms lose, gain or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of eight valence electrons Why? This is the stable electron configuration of the noble gases Why? This is the stable electron configuration of the noble gases How do we know if they will gain or lose electrons? Atoms will do what is easiest to get the most stable electron configuration. Atoms with 5, 6 or 7 valence electrons will ___________ electrons. Atoms with 1, 2 or 3 valence electrons will ___________ electrons. lose gain

5 How do atoms form bonds? One way is by the formation of ions. One way is by the formation of ions. An ion is an atom (or a group of bonded atoms) with a positive or negative charge. An ion is an atom (or a group of bonded atoms) with a positive or negative charge. - Proton - Neutron - Electron Sodium Atom What would be the easiest way this sodium atom could get the perfect 8? Sodium Ion

6 Positive or Negative Ion? How can you tell if the ion formed will be positive or negative? –C–C–C–Count the protons and electrons How many protons? ___ How many electrons? ___ What’s the charge? ___ 11 0 How many protons? ___ How many electrons? ___ What’s the charge? ___

7 Activity Time Obtain an ion card from teacher Obtain an ion card from teacher If you have a metal ion, go to the back of the room If you have a metal ion, go to the back of the room If you have a nonmetal ion, go to the front of the room If you have a nonmetal ion, go to the front of the room Once there, look at the other members of your group and start generating conclusions Once there, look at the other members of your group and start generating conclusions

8 Conclusions from Activity What type of atoms form positive ions? What type of atoms form positive ions? –Metals What type of atoms form negative ions? What type of atoms form negative ions? –Nonmetals

9 Let’s Go Further If you have an alkali metal, stand near the fire extinguisher If you have an alkali metal, stand near the fire extinguisher If you have an alkaline earth metal, stand by the fume hood If you have an alkaline earth metal, stand by the fume hood If you have a transition metal, go to the front middle lab table If you have a transition metal, go to the front middle lab table If you have a halogen, stand near the computer If you have a halogen, stand near the computer Any others? Stand by my desk Any others? Stand by my desk

10 What did we learn? All alkali metals have a charge of _____. All alkali metals have a charge of _____. All alkaline earth metals have a charge of _____. All alkaline earth metals have a charge of _____. All halogens have a charge of ____. All halogens have a charge of ____. Group 6A elements have a charge of ____. Group 6A elements have a charge of ____

11 Transition Elements How many valence electrons do transition elements have? How many valence electrons do transition elements have? –Two They will commonly lose those two valence electrons to form ions with a +2 charge They will commonly lose those two valence electrons to form ions with a +2 charge But….they can also lose some of their d electrons to form ions of +3, +4 or greater But….they can also lose some of their d electrons to form ions of +3, +4 or greater

12 Roman Numerals System used to indicate numbers System used to indicate numbers –I = 1 –II = 2 –III = 3 –IV = 4 We use Roman Numerals to indicate charge of transition metals We use Roman Numerals to indicate charge of transition metals –Copper (II) = Copper +2 –Iron (III) = Iron +3

13 Names of Ions A positively charged ion is called a cation. A positively charged ion is called a cation. –A cation’s name is the same as the element A negatively charge ion is called an anion. A negatively charge ion is called an anion. –An anion’s name has the ending “–ide” added to the root name  Example: Anion of chlorine is the chloride ion. 1. What is the oxygen ion called? 2. What is the fluorine ion called? 3. What is the bromine ion called? oxide fluoride bromide

14 Practice Questions Practice Questions 1. Which type of atoms form cations? 2. Which type of atoms form anions? 3. Is Na + a cation or anion? 4. Is F - a cation of anion? 5. Is Ca 2+ a cation or anion? 6. Is Mg 2+ a cation or anion? 7. What is the charge of the iodine ion? 8. What is the name of the iodine anion? 9. Would oxygen form a cation or anion? 10. What is the net charge of zinc (II)? metals nonmetals cation anion cation iodide anion 2+

15 Monatomic vs. Polyatomic Mono means one Mono means one Poly means many Poly means many So, a monatomic ion refers to ions with single atoms So, a monatomic ion refers to ions with single atoms A polyatomic ion refers to ions with more than one atom A polyatomic ion refers to ions with more than one atom

16 Monatomic Ions Elements as they are on the periodic table form monatomic ions Elements as they are on the periodic table form monatomic ions

17 Polyatomic Ions Sulfate Carbonate  Formed when more than one atom are grouped together  Charge on polyatomic ions applies to entire group of atoms.  The polyatomic ion acts as an individual ion NH 4 + Ammonium NO 3 - Nitrate OH - Hydroxide CO 3 2- Carbonate SO 4 2- Sulfate PO 4 3- Phosphate NO 2 - Nitrite Common Polyatomic Ions


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