Presentation on theme: "Ch 27 Environmental Microbiology"— Presentation transcript:
1Ch 27 Environmental Microbiology What do Microbes do?How can we use this to our advantage?
2Microbes have small genomes but can Not do a lot, but what do, do wellExtremophilesMicrobes live in extreme conditions ofTemperatureAcidityAlkalinitySalinityEubacteria vs Archaebacteria
3Biological definition of Organismal interactions Symbiosis: a relationship between two different speciesParasitism: one org gets nutrients from anotherMutualism: both partners benefitCommensalisms: one benefits more
5Other examples? Mycorrhizae Endomycorrhizae or vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae. Endo withinAnd ectomycorrhizae, on the outside oaks ect.
6Biogeochemical cycles Matter can neither be created or destroyedA constant amount of matter in the environment must be recycledMicrobes are essential in the conversion of nutrients into organic and usable formatsMicrobes are essential in the conversion of nutrients into the inorganic form
7The Biogeochemical cycles Also termed biological fire
8The carbon cycle Photoautotrophs Chemoautorophs Both convert inorganic forms of carbon into organic forms using external sources of energy
9Chemoheterotrophs release Inorganic form of carbon (CO2) to complete the cycle.Non living sinks includeCaCO3 and fossil fuels
10Discuss how carbon moves and the sinks or storage areas
11The nitrogen cycle Local shortages because of Nitrogen stuff Microbes decompose proteins form dead cells and release amino acidsAmmonia is liberated by microbial ammonificaiton of amino acidsAmmonia is oxidized to produce nitrates for energy by nitrifying bacteriaAgain, look at how this nutrient moves and what causes local shortages
12More nitrogen stuffDenitrifying bacteria reduce nitrogen in nitrates to molecular nitrogenN2 is converted into ammonia by nitrogen fixing bacteriaAmmonium and nitrate are used by bacteria and plants to synthesize amino acidsDenitrification occurs in watterlogged soils without air. The nitrates of agricultural fertilizer can act as an electron acceptor
19The Phosphorus CycleInorganic phosphorus is solubilized by microbial acidsMade available to plants and other microbesIs soluble in waterCombines with calcium in calcium phosphate deposits of ancient seas.
20Life Without SunshinePrimary producers in most ecosystems are photoautotrophsPrimary producers in deep ocean and endolithic communities are chemoautotrophic bacteriaH2SSO42–Provides energy for bacteria which may be used to fix CO2Calvin CycleCO2SugarsProvides carbon for cell growth
21Use of chemicals in soil and water Many man made chemicals do not biodegrade because they are not made by living organismsWhy?
22Decomposition by Microbes Weed be gone a biodegradable herbicideAgent orange, a resilient herbicideComponents of agent orangeFigure 27.8
23Bioremediation Use of microorganism to remove pollution Cheaper Can use natural organismIs helped by preventing limited nutrients
24Solid Municipal Waste piles Many municipal waste piles are inefficiently run because they are dry and anaerobic
25Aquatic conditionsBiofilms are composed of whole communities of microbes that are metabolically diverseBodies of water are naturally set up to process wasteTend to grow in presence of oxygen and lightUse is best when oxygen content is increasedPhytoplankton in oceans are primary producers in the open ocean
29Water quality testsColiforms are aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, gram negative non endospore forming rods that ferment lactose with the production of acid and gas within 48 hours of been placed in a medium at 35’CFecal Coliforms predominantly E. coli are used to indicate the presence of human fecies
30ColiformsAerobic or facultatively anaerobic, gram-negative, non–endospore forming rods that ferment lactose to acid + gas within 48 hr, at 35°CIndicator organismsUsed to detect fecal contaminationMPNMost probable number/100 ml of water
31Water TreatmentWater held in a holding reservoir long enough that suspended matter settlesFlocculation treatment uses a chemical such as alum to coalesce and settle colloidal materialFiltration removes protozoan cyst and other microbesDrinking water is disinfected with chlorine to kill remaining pathogenic bacteria
33Sewage TreatmentThe quality of life that we see in our first world countries is due to our treatment of sewagePrimary treatment: removal of solid materials (35% BOD)Secondary treatment: Reduction of BOD by the metabolic (95%BOD) degradation of organic matter
34More sewage treatment BOD biochemical oxygen demand Tertiary provides essentially drinkable water is much more expensive to do