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Environmental Microbiology

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Microbiology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Microbiology
Chapter 27 Environmental Microbiology

2 Q&A What do these microorganisms have to do with the cultivation of rice in Asia?

3 Microbial Diversity and Habitats
27-1 Define extremophile, and identify two “extreme” habitats. 27-2 Define symbiosis. 27-3 Define mycorrhiza, differentiate endomycorrhizae from ectomycorrhizae, and give an example of each.

4 Microbial Diversity and Habitats
Microbes live in a variety of habitats because of their abilities to Use a variety of carbon and energy sources Grow under different physical conditions Extremophiles live in extreme pH Temperature Salinity

5 Symbiosis Two differing organisms living together in close association that is beneficial to one or both of them Examples of animal-microbe symbiosis: Ruminants (such as sheeps and cows) and the bacteria in the rumen Mycorrhizae contribute to plant growth

6 Mycorrhizae Fungi living in close association with plant roots
Extend surface area of roots Figure 27.1

7 Commercial Uses of Mycorrhizae
Figure 27.2

8 Can you identify two extreme habitats for extremophile organisms? 27-1
What is the definition of symbiosis? 27-2 Is a truffle an example of an endomycorrhiza or an ectomycorrhiza? 27-3

9 Soil Microbiology & Biogeochemical Cycles
27-4 Define biogeochemical cycle. 27-5 Outline the carbon cycle, and explain the roles of microoganisms in this cycle. 27-6 Outline the nitrogen cycle, and explain the roles of microorganisms in this cycle. 27-7 Define ammonification, nitrification, denitrification, and nitrogen fixation. 27-8 Outline the sulfur cycle, and explain the roles of microorganisms in this cycle.

10 Soil Microbiology & Biogeochemical Cycles
27-9 Describe how the ecological community can exist without light energy. 27-10 Compare and contrast the carbon cycle and the phosphorus cycle. 27-11 Give two examples of the use of bacteria to remove pollutants. 27-12 Define bioremediation.

11 Biogeochemical Cycles
Recycling (oxidation and reduction) of chemical elements

12 The Carbon Cycle Figure 27.3

13 What biogeochemical cycle is much publicized as contributing to global warming? 27-4
What is the main source of the carbon in the cellulose forming the mass of a forest? 27-5

14 The Nitrogen Cycle Figure 27.4

15 The Nitrogen Cycle Proteins and waste products Amino acids
Microbial decomposition Proteins and waste products Amino acids Microbial ammonification Amino acids (–NH2) Ammonia (NH3) Nitrosomonas Ammonium ion (NH4+) Nitrite ion (NO2- ) Nitrobacter Nitrite ion (NO2-) Nitrate ion (NO3- ) Pseudomonas Nitrate ion (NO3-) N2 Nitrogen fixation N2 Ammonia (NH3)

16 Nitrogen Fixation In rhizosphere Azotobacter Beijerinckia
Clostridium pasteurianum Cyanobacteria: heterocysts Figure 27.6

17 Nitrogen Fixation In root nodules Rhizobium Bradyrhizobium Frankia
Figure 27.5

18 The Formation of a Root Nodule
Figure 27.5

19 Nitrogen Fixation In lichens Cyanobacteria Figure 12.9a

20 Q&A What do these microorganisms have to do with the cultivation of rice in Asia?

21 What is the common name for the group of microbes that oxidize soil nitrogen into a form that is mobile in soil and likely to be used for nutrition by plants? 27-6 Bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas, in the absence of oxygen, will use fully oxidized nitrogen as an electron acceptor, a process in the nitrogen cycle that is given what name? 27-7

22 The Sulfur Cycle Figure 27.7

23 The Sulfur Cycle Proteins and waste products Amino acids
Microbial decomposition Proteins and waste products Amino acids Microbial dissimilation Amino acids (–SH) H2S Thiobacillus H2S SO42– (for energy) Microbial & plant assimilation SO42– Amino acids

24 Life without Sunshine Primary producers in the dark:
Deep ocean and endolithic communities Are chemoautotrophic bacteria

25 Life with Sunshine Provides energy for bacteria that may be used to fix CO2 Provides carbon for cell growth Calvin cycle CO2 Sugars Figure 5.25b

26 Life without Sunshine Provides energy for bacteria that may be used to fix CO2 H2S SO42– Provides carbon for cell growth Calvin cycle CO2 Sugars Figure 5.25b

27 The Phosphorous Cycle PO43- in rocks and in cells
Acid from Thiobacillus

28 Certain nonphotosynthetic bacteria accumulated granules of sulfur within the cell; were the bacteria using hydrogen sulfide or sulfates as an energy source? 27-8 What chemical usually serves as an energy source for organisms that survive in darkness? 27-9 Why does phosphorus tend to accumulate in the seas? 27-10

29 The Degradation of Synthetic Chemicals
Natural organic matter is easily degraded by microbes Xenobiotics are resistant to degradation

30 Microbial Decomposition of Herbicides
Figure 27.8

31 Decomposition by Microbes
Bioremediation: Use of microbes to detoxify or degrade pollutants; enhanced by nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer Bioaugmentation: Addition of specific microbes to degrade of pollutant Composting: Arranging organic waste to promote microbial degradation by thermophiles Figure 27.9

32 Bioremediation Applications, p. 33, 792

33 Decomposition by Microbes
Figure 27.10

34 Why are petroleum products naturally resistant to metabolism by bacteria? 27-11
What is the definition of the term bioremediation? 27-12

35 Aquatic Microbiology & Sewage Treatment
27-13 Describe the freshwater and seawater habitats of microorganisms. 27-14 Explain how wastewater pollution is a public health problem and an ecological problem. 27-15 Discuss the causes and effects of eutrophication. 27-16 Explain how water is tested for bacteriological purity. 27-17 Describe how pathogens are removed from drinking water.

36 Aquatic Microbiology & Sewage Treatment
27-18 Compare primary, secondary, and tertiary sewage treatment. 27-19 List some of the biochemical activities that take place in an anaerobic sludge digester. 27-20 Define biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), activated sludge system, trickling filter, septic tank, and oxidation pond.

37 Freshwater Microbiota
Littoral zone: Along shore Producers: Plants Limnetic zone: Surface of open water along shore Producers: Algae and cyanobacteria Profundal zone: Deeper water, under limnetic zone Producrs: Anaerobic purple and green photosynthetic bacteria Benthic zone: Bottom sediment

38 Freshwater Microbiota
Benthic zone: Bottom sediment, often no light and little O2 Desulfovibrio Methanogens Clostridrium

39 Seawater Microbiota Figure 12.10

40 Seawater Microbiota Phytoplankton in top 100 m Decomposed by
Photosynthetic cyanobacteria fix carbon Prochlorococcus Synechococcus And fix nitrogen Trichodesmium Decomposed by Pelagibacter ubique

41 Seawater Microbiota Archaea dominate below 100 m
Crenarchaeota Bioluminescent bacteria are present

42 Bioluminescence Luciferase FMNH2 FMN + photon
Figure 27.11, Applications, p. 780

43 Purple and green sulfur bacteria are photosynthetic organisms, but they are generally found deep in freshwater rather than at the surface. Why? 27-13

44 Microbial Water Pollution
Microbes are filtered from water that percolates into groundwater Some pathogens are transmitted to humans in drinking and recreational water

45 Microbial Water Pollution
Figure 12.12

46 Chemical Water Pollution
Resistant chemicals may be concentrated in the aquatic food chain Mercury is metabolized by certain bacteria into a soluble compound, which is concentrated in animals

47 Eutrophication Overabundance of nutrients in lakes and streams
Caused by Addition of organic matter Or inorganic matter Phosphates Nitrogen Which cause algal blooms

48 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
Bacterial decomposition of organic matter uses up O2 in water

49 Algal Blooms Figure 12.13

50 Water Purity Tests Indicator organisms MPN:
Used to detect fecal contamination Coliforms Enterococcus MPN: Most probable number/100 ml of water

51 Coliforms Aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, gram-negative, non–endospore forming rods that ferment lactose to acid plus gas within 48 hours, at 35°C

52 Multiple-Tube Method Figure 6.19a

53 Multiple-Tube Method Figure 6.19b

54 Membrane Filtration Method
Figure 6.18b

55 The ONPG and MUG Coliform Test
ONPG causes E. coli to make -galactosidase - galactosidase MUG fluorescent compound Figure 27.14

56 Water That Passed Quality Test
Figure 27.17

57 Which disease is more likely to be transmitted by polluted water, cholera or influenza? 27-14
Name a microorganism that will grow in water even if there is no source of organic matter for energy or a nitrogen source—but does require small inputs of phosphorus Coliforms are the most common bacterial indicator of health-threatening water pollution in the United States. Why is it usually necessary to specify the term fecal coliform? 27-16

58 Municipal Water Purification Treatment
Figure 27.15

59 Wastewater Treatment: Septic Tanks
Figure 27.23

60 Wastewater Treatment: Oxidation Ponds
For small communities Pond 1: Settle solids, pump water to pond 2 Pond 2: Bacterial decomposition of dissolved organic matter in water

61 Municipal Sewage Treatment
Primary treatment Removal of solids Disinfection Secondary treatment Removal of much of the BOD Water can be used for irrigation Tertiary treatment Removal of remaining BOD, N, and P Water is drinkable

62 Municipal Sewage Treatment
Figure 27.18

63 An Activated Sludge System
Figure 27.19a

64 An Activated Sludge System
Figure 27.19b

65 A Trickling Filter Figure 27.21

66 A Trickling Filter Figure 27.21

67 Anaerobic Sludge Digestion
CO2 + 4 H2  CH4 + 2 H2O CH3COOH  CH4 + CO2

68 Anaerobic Sludge Digester
Figure 27.22

69 Tertiary Sewage Treatment
Secondary effluent contains Residual BOD 50% of the original nitrogen 70% of the original phosphorus Tertiary treatment removes these by Filtration through sand and activated charcoal Chemical precipitation

70 How do flocculants such as alum remove colloidal impurities, including microorganisms, from water? 27-17 Which type of sewage treatment is designed to remove almost all phosphorus from sewage? What metabolic group of anaerobic bacteria is especially encouraged by operation of a sludge digestion system? 27-19 What is the relationship between BOD and the welfare of fish? 27-20

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