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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Lectures prepared by Christine L. Case Chapter 27 Environmental Microbiology.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Lectures prepared by Christine L. Case Chapter 27 Environmental Microbiology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Lectures prepared by Christine L. Case Chapter 27 Environmental Microbiology

2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Q&A  What do these microorganisms have to do with the cultivation of rice in Asia?

3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives Microbial Diversity and Habitats 27-1Define extremophile, and identify two “extreme” habitats. 27-2Define symbiosis. 27-3Define mycorrhiza, differentiate endomycorrhizae from ectomycorrhizae, and give an example of each.

4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Microbial Diversity and Habitats  Microbes live in a variety of habitats because of their abilities to  Use a variety of carbon and energy sources  Grow under different physical conditions  Extremophiles live in extreme  pH  Temperature  Salinity

5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Symbiosis  Two differing organisms living together in close association that is beneficial to one or both of them  Examples of animal-microbe symbiosis:  Ruminants (such as sheeps and cows) and the bacteria in the rumen  Mycorrhizae contribute to plant growth

6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 27.1 Mycorrhizae  Fungi living in close association with plant roots  Extend surface area of roots

7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 27.2 Commercial Uses of Mycorrhizae

8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Check Your Understanding Can you identify two extreme habitats for extremophile organisms? 27-1 What is the definition of symbiosis? 27-2 Is a truffle an example of an endomycorrhiza or an ectomycorrhiza? 27-3

9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives Soil Microbiology & Biogeochemical Cycles 27-4Define biogeochemical cycle. 27-5Outline the carbon cycle, and explain the roles of microoganisms in this cycle. 27-6Outline the nitrogen cycle, and explain the roles of microorganisms in this cycle. 27-7Define ammonification, nitrification, denitrification, and nitrogen fixation. 27-8Outline the sulfur cycle, and explain the roles of microorganisms in this cycle.

10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives 27-9Describe how the ecological community can exist without light energy Compare and contrast the carbon cycle and the phosphorus cycle Give two examples of the use of bacteria to remove pollutants Define bioremediation. Soil Microbiology & Biogeochemical Cycles

11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Biogeochemical Cycles  Recycling (oxidation and reduction) of chemical elements

12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 27.3 The Carbon Cycle

13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Check Your Understanding What biogeochemical cycle is much publicized as contributing to global warming? 27-4 What is the main source of the carbon in the cellulose forming the mass of a forest? 27-5

14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 27.4 The Nitrogen Cycle

15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. N2N2 Nitrogen fixation Ammonia (NH 3 ) Nitrate ion (NO 3 - ) Pseudomonas N2N2 Nitrite ion (NO 2 - ) Nitrobacter Nitrate ion (NO 3 - ) Ammonium ion (NH 4 + ) Nitrosomonas Nitrite ion (NO 2 - ) Amino acids (–NH 2 ) Microbial ammonification Ammonia (NH 3 ) Proteins and waste products Microbial decomposition Amino acids The Nitrogen Cycle

16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 27.6 Nitrogen Fixation  In rhizosphere  Azotobacter  Beijerinckia  Clostridium pasteurianum  Cyanobacteria: heterocysts

17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 27.5 Nitrogen Fixation  In root nodules  Rhizobium  Bradyrhizobium  Frankia

18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 27.5 The Formation of a Root Nodule

19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.9a Nitrogen Fixation  In lichens  Cyanobacteria

20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Q&A  What do these microorganisms have to do with the cultivation of rice in Asia?

21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Check Your Understanding What is the common name for the group of microbes that oxidize soil nitrogen into a form that is mobile in soil and likely to be used for nutrition by plants? 27-6 Bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas, in the absence of oxygen, will use fully oxidized nitrogen as an electron acceptor, a process in the nitrogen cycle that is given what name? 27-7

22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 27.7 The Sulfur Cycle

23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Proteins and waste productsAmino acids Microbial decomposition Amino acids (–SH) Microbial dissimilation H2SH2S H2SH2S Thiobacillus SO 4 2– (for energy) SO 4 2– Microbial & plant assimilation Amino acids The Sulfur Cycle

24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Life without Sunshine  Primary producers in the dark:  Deep ocean and endolithic communities  Are chemoautotrophic bacteria

25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Provides energy for bacteria that may be used to fix CO 2 CO 2 Sugars Provides carbon for cell growth Calvin cycle Figure 5.25b Life with Sunshine

26 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Provides energy for bacteria that may be used to fix CO 2 CO 2 Sugars Provides carbon for cell growth Calvin cycle H2SH2S SO 4 2– Figure 5.25b Life without Sunshine

27 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.  PO 4 3- in rocks and in cells  Acid from Thiobacillus The Phosphorous Cycle

28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Check Your Understanding Certain nonphotosynthetic bacteria accumulated granules of sulfur within the cell; were the bacteria using hydrogen sulfide or sulfates as an energy source? 27-8 What chemical usually serves as an energy source for organisms that survive in darkness? 27-9 Why does phosphorus tend to accumulate in the seas? 27-10

29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Degradation of Synthetic Chemicals  Natural organic matter is easily degraded by microbes  Xenobiotics are resistant to degradation

30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 27.8 Microbial Decomposition of Herbicides

31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 27.9 Decomposition by Microbes  Bioremediation: Use of microbes to detoxify or degrade pollutants; enhanced by nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer  Bioaugmentation: Addition of specific microbes to degrade of pollutant  Composting: Arranging organic waste to promote microbial degradation by thermophiles

32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Applications, p. 33, 792 Bioremediation

33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Decomposition by Microbes

34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Check Your Understanding Why are petroleum products naturally resistant to metabolism by bacteria? What is the definition of the term bioremediation? 27-12

35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives Aquatic Microbiology & Sewage Treatment 27-13Describe the freshwater and seawater habitats of microorganisms Explain how wastewater pollution is a public health problem and an ecological problem Discuss the causes and effects of eutrophication Explain how water is tested for bacteriological purity Describe how pathogens are removed from drinking water.

36 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives 27-18Compare primary, secondary, and tertiary sewage treatment List some of the biochemical activities that take place in an anaerobic sludge digester Define biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), activated sludge system, trickling filter, septic tank, and oxidation pond. Aquatic Microbiology & Sewage Treatment

37 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Freshwater Microbiota  Littoral zone: Along shore  Producers: Plants  Limnetic zone: Surface of open water along shore  Producers: Algae and cyanobacteria  Profundal zone: Deeper water, under limnetic zone  Producrs: Anaerobic purple and green photosynthetic bacteria  Benthic zone: Bottom sediment

38 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Freshwater Microbiota  Benthic zone: Bottom sediment, often no light and little O 2  Desulfovibrio  Methanogens  Clostridrium

39 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Seawater Microbiota

40 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Seawater Microbiota  Phytoplankton in top 100 m  Photosynthetic cyanobacteria fix carbon  Prochlorococcus  Synechococcus  And fix nitrogen  Trichodesmium  Decomposed by  Pelagibacter ubique

41 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Seawater Microbiota  Archaea dominate below 100 m  Crenarchaeota  Bioluminescent bacteria are present

42 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. FMNH 2 FMN + photon Luciferase Figure 27.11, Applications, p. 780 Bioluminescence

43 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Check Your Understanding Purple and green sulfur bacteria are photosynthetic organisms, but they are generally found deep in freshwater rather than at the surface. Why? 27-13

44 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Microbial Water Pollution  Microbes are filtered from water that percolates into groundwater  Some pathogens are transmitted to humans in drinking and recreational water

45 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Microbial Water Pollution

46 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical Water Pollution  Resistant chemicals may be concentrated in the aquatic food chain  Mercury is metabolized by certain bacteria into a soluble compound, which is concentrated in animals

47 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Eutrophication  Overabundance of nutrients in lakes and streams  Caused by  Addition of organic matter  Or inorganic matter  Phosphates  Nitrogen  Which cause algal blooms

48 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)  Bacterial decomposition of organic matter uses up O 2 in water

49 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Algal Blooms

50 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Water Purity Tests  Indicator organisms  Used to detect fecal contamination  Coliforms  Enterococcus  MPN:  Most probable number/100 ml of water

51 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Coliforms  Aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, gram-negative, non–endospore forming rods that ferment lactose to acid plus gas within 48 hours, at 35°C

52 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6.19a Multiple-Tube Method

53 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6.19b Multiple-Tube Method

54 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6.18b Membrane Filtration Method

55 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.  ONPG causes E. coli to make  -galactosidase MUG fluorescent compound  - galactosidase Figure The ONPG and MUG Coliform Test

56 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Water That Passed Quality Test

57 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Check Your Understanding Which disease is more likely to be transmitted by polluted water, cholera or influenza? Name a microorganism that will grow in water even if there is no source of organic matter for energy or a nitrogen source—but does require small inputs of phosphorus Coliforms are the most common bacterial indicator of health-threatening water pollution in the United States. Why is it usually necessary to specify the term fecal coliform? 27-16

58 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Municipal Water Purification Treatment

59 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Wastewater Treatment: Septic Tanks

60 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Wastewater Treatment: Oxidation Ponds  For small communities  Pond 1: Settle solids, pump water to pond 2  Pond 2: Bacterial decomposition of dissolved organic matter in water

61 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Municipal Sewage Treatment  Primary treatment  Removal of solids  Disinfection  Secondary treatment  Removal of much of the BOD  Disinfection  Water can be used for irrigation  Tertiary treatment  Removal of remaining BOD, N, and P  Disinfection  Water is drinkable

62 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Municipal Sewage Treatment

63 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 27.19a An Activated Sludge System

64 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 27.19b An Activated Sludge System

65 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure A Trickling Filter

66 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure A Trickling Filter

67 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Anaerobic Sludge Digestion  CO H 2  CH H 2 O  CH 3 COOH  CH 4 + CO 2

68 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Anaerobic Sludge Digester

69 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Tertiary Sewage Treatment  Secondary effluent contains  Residual BOD  50% of the original nitrogen  70% of the original phosphorus  Tertiary treatment removes these by  Filtration through sand and activated charcoal  Chemical precipitation

70 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Check Your Understanding How do flocculants such as alum remove colloidal impurities, including microorganisms, from water? Which type of sewage treatment is designed to remove almost all phosphorus from sewage? What metabolic group of anaerobic bacteria is especially encouraged by operation of a sludge digestion system? What is the relationship between BOD and the welfare of fish? 27-20


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