Presentation on theme: "Trophic Levels and Food Chains"— Presentation transcript:
1 Trophic Levels and Food Chains Quaternary consumersFood Chain:set of food (energy) transfer from trophic level to trophic levelCarnivoreCarnivoreTertiary consumersCarnivoreCarnivoreSecondary consumersCarnivoreCarnivorePrimary consumersHerbivoreZooplanktonProducersPlantPhytoplanktonFigure 19.21A terrestrial food chainA marine food chain
2 Herbivores: eat plants, algae, or autotrophic bacteria, are the primary consumers of an ecosystem Carnivores, which eat the consumers from the levels belowSecondary consumers include many small mammals, such as rodents, and small fishes that eat zooplanktonTertiary consumers, such as snakes, eat mice and other secondary consumersQuaternary consumers include hawks and killer whales.
3 Decomposers:What is a decomposer and what do they do? What trophic level would you put them at?Derive their energy from the dead material left by all trophic levelsAre often left off of most food chain diagramsFigure 19.22
5 Energy PyramidsWhen energy flows as organic matter through the trophic levels of an ecosystem, much of it is lost at each link in a food chain. Why?When you burn energy to run down the mile in gym what happens to most of the energy you are using?
6 Plant material eaten by caterpillar Does all the energy this caterpillar eats getpassed to the bird who eats him?Plant material eaten by caterpillar100 kilocalories (kcal)35 kcalCellular respiration50 kcalFeces15 kcalGrowthFigure 19.25
7 Energy pyramidIs a diagram that represents the cumulative loss of energy from a food chain
8 What happens to energy as you go up trophic levels? Why? Tertiary consumers10 kcalSecondary consumers100 kcalPrimary consumers1,000 kcalProducers10,000 kcalFigure 19.26
9 CHEMICAL CYCLING IN ECOSYSTEMS Depend on a recycling of chemical elementsWhat gets recycled in our ecosystem?Energy?? NOOOWaterCarbonPhosphorus
10 Generalized scheme for biogeochemical cycles ConsumersProducersDetritivoresNutrients available to producersAbiotic reservoirGeologic processesFigure 19.28
11 Higher-level consumers The carbon cycleCO2 in atmospherePhotosynthesisBurningProducersWood and fossil fuelsCellular respirationHigher-level consumersPrimary consumersDecompositionDetritivoresDetritusWhat do we eat that has carbon?(a) The carbon cycleFigure 19.29a
12 Producers: Plants take in CO2 and make sugar by photosynthesis. Carbon CycleProducers: Plants take in CO2 and make sugar by photosynthesis.Consumers: Animals eat plants to get energy (respiration) from sugar and make proteins from the carbon.Breath out CO2 as a waste product of respiration.Animals die and dentritus (decomposers) break down the carbon and other elements back into the soil and air for plants to use again.
13 The nitrogen cycle Detritus Nitrates (NO3– ) Decomposition Nitrogen (N2) in atmosphereDetritusAmino acids and proteins in plants and animalsDenitrifying bacteriaDetritivoresAssimilation by plantsNitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules of legumesNitrates (NO3– )DecompositionNitrogen fixationNitrogen-fixing bacteriain soilAmmonium (NH4+ )Nitrifying bacteria(b) The nitrogen cycleFigure 19.29b
14 Nitrogen Fixation by bacteria Plants need nitrogen but cannot take it in from the air.Bacteria in the soil on the roots of plants take in nitrogen (N2) and make ammonia (NH4) which plants can then use to get nitrogen.
15 Precipitated (solid) phosphates Phosphates in solution The phosphorous cycleUplifting of rockPhosphates in rockWeathering of rockPhosphatesin organic compoundsConsumersProducersDetritusRockPhosphatesin soil (inorganic)Precipitated (solid) phosphatesPhosphates in solutionDetritivores in soilWhat part of you has phosphate?(c) The phosphorus cycleFigure 19.29c
16 The water cycle Net movement of water vapor by wind (36) Solar heat Water vapor over the landWater vapor over the seaPrecipitation over the land (95)Evaporation and transpiration (59)Precipitation over the sea (283)Evaporation from the sea (319)Surfacewater and groundwaterFlow of water from land to sea (36)Oceans(d) The water cycleFigure 19.29d