Presentation on theme: "Pubertal Processes What biological changes of puberty have the biggest impact on boys or girls? What teens worry about? What teens talk about? What teens."— Presentation transcript:
1 Pubertal ProcessesWhat biological changes of puberty have the biggest impact on boys or girls?What teens worry about?What teens talk about?What teens feel proud of?What teens feel ashamed of?
2 What is Puberty?Period of physical growth leading to attainment of reproductive capabilityFive areas of changes:Acceleration then deceleration of skeletal growthChanges in body composition & distribution of fat and muscleDevelopment of circulatory and respiratory systems, increased enduranceMaturation of reproductive organs, secondary sex characteristicsChanges in nervous and endocrine systems
3 Influences on Pubertal Timing Largely geneticInfluenced by nutrition and medical healthLevel of body fatStress
4 What Changes at Puberty: Levels of Sex Hormones Endocrine system produces, circulates, and regulates the level of sex hormones:Releasing FactorsPituitaryGlandHypothalamusLH & FSHAndrogensandEstrogensMonitoringLevelsSexOrgansSex hormones
6 Changes in Muscle and Fat Before puberty, boys = girls on levels of muscle and fatBoth boys and girls develop muscle and increase fat during pubertyMuscle grows faster in boys, fat increases faster in girlsEnd of puberty muscle/fat ratio: 3:1 for boys, 5:4 for girls
8 Physical Changes in Adolescent Brains may Account for Turbulent Teen Years, McLean Hospital study revealsJune 11, Belmont, MA-- Parents of teenagers can take heart in a McLean Hospital study that provides the first real look at the physiological basis for emotional and cognitive development during adolescence.In this study, scientists used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the emotional processing of healthy 10- to 18-year-olds with that of normal adults. The researchers focused on the level of brain activity in the amygdala, a region that guides instinctual or "gut" reactions, and the frontal lobe, the seat of rationalization and reasoning. They found that when young adolescents process emotion, the level of brain activity in the amygdala is higher than the activity in the frontal lobe. However, as adolescents progress into adulthood, there is an age-related shift: activation in the amygdala decreases while activity in the frontal lobe increases. Adults show greater overall activation in the frontal lobe and less activation in the amygdala as compared with adolescents.Brain Development
9 Brain Development, c’t’d "These results suggest that adolescents are more prone to react with ‘gut instinct’ when they process emotions, but as they mature into early adulthood, they are able to temper their instinctive ‘gut reaction’ response with rational, reasoned responses," says Yurgelun-Todd. "Adult brains use the frontal lobe to rationalize or apply brakes to emotional responses. Adolescent brains are just beginning to develop that ability."Results from this phase of the study revealed a similar shift in functional activation for language based tasks during adolescence. Data collected from the study indicated that as subjects aged, the activation in the temporal region decreased while activity in the frontal lobe increased, indicating that the reasoning/rationalization part of the brain becomes increasingly involved in the center for language production as individuals mature.
10 Tanner StagesMost widely used way of measuring pubertal status (Marshall & Tanner, 1969)Five stages of penis/scrotum and pubic hair development for boys; Five stages of breast and pubic hair development for girls.Developed the system by assessing nude photographs of adolescent boys and girlsUnclothed adolescents are assessed by trained health professionals, with physical exam and photographsLess intrusive alternative: teens look at photos indicating Tanner stages, and rate themselves.
11 Appearance of Primary and Secondary Sex Characteristics
12 Puberty and Self-Esteem Does self-esteem drop?Girls: Puberty associated with small decrease in self-esteemGreatest impact is on girls experiencing multiple transitions at once (e.g., menarche, dating, school change)
13 Puberty and Moodiness Does puberty increase moodiness? Maybe. Boys: high testosterone associated with rebelliousness, aggression, sadness (Sussman)Boys: rapid increase in testosterone associated with better adjustment (Sussman)Girls: Rapid increases in estrogen associated with depression, but interpersonal stress has a bigger influence on mood than does hormonal level (Brooks-Gunn).“Beeper studies” find evidence of moodiness, but moods change with activities, not randomly.
14 Puberty and Family Relationships Increased distance and conflict, especially conflict with motherConflict gradually diminishes after the growth spurtPossible explanations:Evolutionary process to achieve separationChange in established childhood relationship patterns, a transition for all family membersSome variation by culture
15 Reactions to Sexual Development Girls are often ambivalent about menarchePrior expectations affect girls’ experience of menarcheBoys do not tend to feel anxious or embarrassed about first ejaculationHowever, boys do not talk about it with anyone
16 Early vs. Late Maturation: Girls Girls: Early maturation associated with more psychological problemsPoorer body image, more food intake restrictionHigher rates of depression, anxiety disordersHigher rates of delinquency, substance abuse (especially if pre-existing problems), early sexual intercourseBut, more popular, especially with boys
17 Early vs. Late Maturation: Boys Early maturation associated with better social and emotional functioningGood to be taller and stronger than one’s peersAssociated with popularity, and more opportunity for contact with girlsMore likely to be leaders, more self-confidenceBut there are some down sides:more at risk for antisocial behavior, substance abuseAt the time of puberty, late maturers are more intellectually curious, less prone to intense negative emotion
18 Why Does Early- vs. Late Pubertal Timing Matter? Deviancy hypothesis (Peterson & Taylor, 1980): Both early and late maturers at risk, because development is not in sync with that of peers.Stage termination hypothesis (Peskin & Levin, 1972): early maturation (not late maturation) is bad because it interrupts normal course of development.
19 Puberty and Body Image in Girls Overall, girls are less satisfied with their weight as they become pubertal.Height, weight, overall appearance: in some studies, early developers are (by the time they reach late adolescence) less satisfied than on-time or late-developers, who were most satisfied.
20 Pubertal Timing and Girls’ Body Image 6th7th8th12th
21 Puberty and Body Image in Boys Early maturing boys more satisfied than on-time or late boys with their height, weight, body buildBut, the advantages for early maturers do not persist across adolescence
22 Pubertal Timing and Body Image in Boys 6th7th8th12th