2PubertyPUBERTY = physical, mental, and emotional changes as a young child becomes and young adult.Physical Changes begin in girls between ages of 8-10 and last until aroundPhysical changes begin in boys between and last until around 17-19
3From Birth to Adulthood Infancy (birth toage 1)During this periodinfants developtrust and are dependenton others.Early Childhood (ages 1–3)In the toddler years children learn that they can do simple tasks without help.Middle Childhood(ages 3–5)Increased mental skills during the preschool period give children the ability to play make-believe and imitate real-life situations.Late Childhood (ages 6–11)In this stage children begin to interact more with their peers. They gain mastery over objects and activities.Early childhood is an exciting time. Toddlers learn to walk, talk, and use the toilet. As they become independent, they begin to actively explore their surroundings. Toddlers are eager to master new tasks, and take pride in their accomplishments.Children at the preschool stage rapidly develop physical and mental skills. Preschoolers like to sing and make up elaborate stories. They enjoy imitating their siblings and parents by playing “dress-up” and by using toy versions of kitchen equipment, tools, and telephones.Late childhood is the time when children go to school, expand their knowledge, and strengthen their social skills. Interaction with friends becomes more and more important.
4Adolescence and Adulthood (cont’d.) Adolescence (ages 12–18)During this period teens take on greater responsibility and begin to develop their adult personalities.Adulthood (age 19 and onward)During adulthood people work to develop relationships, to achieve goals, and to understand the meaning of their lives.Early adulthood is a time of increased independence, but it is also a time to develop deeper relationships with others. At this stage, people meet others who may not share their values and views of life. Maintaining a sense of identity and personal beliefs at this stage will help them interact with others and solve problems. Most people begin a career in their twenties, and some choose to marry and start a family.People in their thirties, forties, and fifties are in their middle adult years. During these years, most adults concentrate on their jobs and children. They may take classes to gain new skills.In late adulthood, some people look forward to retirement. Others continue their careers or start new ones. Many people in their mid-sixties and beyond also take this time to volunteer in their communities, develop new hobbies, or travel.The life cycle of a human being includes the aging process, dying and death. It is important for families to talk about dying and death, as they are a natural part of the life cycle.
5Hormones and The Endocrine System The hormones that cause the physical and emotional changes of adolescence are produced by your endocrine system.The endocrine system produces hormones that go directly into your bloodstream.The hormones are then carried to different parts of the body to control various functions.
6The Endocrine System (cont’d.) Pituitary glandThe pituitary gland produces several hormones that control the work of other glands and organs.Parathyroid glandsThese glands regulate the levels of calcium and phosphorous in the blood.Thyroid glandThe hormone produced by the thyroid gland regulates body growth and the rate of metabolism.Adrenal glandsThe adrenal glands produce hormones that help regulate the balance of salt and water in the body.PancreasThe pancreas controls the level of sugar in the blood and provides the small intestine with enzymes.Click to show the various glands of the endocrine system. Provide students with this additional information on the glands of the endocrine system.Parathyroid glands. The parathyroid glands are located within the thyroid gland.Adrenal glands: The adrenal glands also aid in digestion and control the body’s response to emergencies and excitement. They are located on top of the kidneys.Ovaries (in female). Ovaries are the female reproductive glands.Pituitary gland: The pituitary gland at the base of the brain produces several hormones that control the work of other glands and organs, such as the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, and kidneys. Pituitary gland hormones also regulate the body’s growth and development.Thyroid gland. The hormone produced by the thyroid gland regulates body growth and the rate of metabolism. The thyroid is located alongside the trachea, or windpipe.Pancreas. The pancreas, located behind the stomach, controls the level of sugar in the blood and provides the small intestine with digestive chemicals called enzymes.Testes (in male). The testes are the male reproductive glands.Ovaries (in female)Hormones produced in the ovaries control sexual development and the maturingof eggs.Testes (in male)The hormone produced in the testes controls sexual development and the production of sperm.
7Hormones responsible for Puberty The Female hormone responsible for puberty changes is Estrogen. It is produced in the Ovaries. The male Hormone responsible for Puberty is Testosterone. The hormones are made in the Ovaries (females) and Testicles (males) but in reality. Both organs produce both hormones.Obviously boys should have more testosterone, etc.
9Emotional ChangesPuberty may bring on powerful emotions. You may even experience mood swings.Mood swings are a natural part of being a teen. They are caused by the release of hormones as well as the changes that you are going through.The fluctuations in your emotions are signs that you are maturing emotionally.
10Expressing Your Emotions No matter what you are feeling, it is important to express your emotions in constructive and appropriate ways.Try to face feelings of anger, sadness, or frustration instead of hiding them.Tell someone if a problem is bothering you or if you often feel sad.If you are angry or upset with someone, take time to consider the other person’s point of view.Ask students to give other examples of expressing emotions in healthy ways.
11Mental changesThrough puberty, your brain begins to be able to solve more complex problems. Teens must be very careful however because the part of their brain responsible for decision making is one of the last parts of the body to mature.THUS...many times, teenagers make decisions with their emotions rather than logicAsk students to give other examples of expressing emotions in healthy ways.
12Social DevelopmentAs you progress through your teen years, your sense of identity is likely to undergo major changes.As a result of these changes, you will become part of new social groups and be involved in interests and activities that are important to you.The interests and activities that you pursue in adolescence, as well as your influences around you that develop your attitudes, beliefs and values, will help shape the type of person you will become as an adult.As teens progress through the teen years, they are constantly learning about themselves and others. They are figuring out how they fit into society and what makes them unique. It is important that teens identify their interests and think about activities they enjoy. This will help discover who they are and what is important to them.
13Adolescence and Adulthood The physical, mental/emotional, and social changes you experience during your teen years serve as a bridge from childhood to adulthood.The decisions you make now will affect the person you become as an adult. These decisions include the following:Eating healthful foods.Engaging in sports or other physical activity.Avoiding tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs.Doing well in school and/or receiving training in an area you may find a job in laterManaging StressFinding positive solutions to conflicts
14Preparing for Adulthood Remember the slide that said teens make decisions with their emotions not logic??Changes in your thinking abilities will eventually lead you to consider more factors when you face complex situations. You begin to ask yourself “what if” questions.Asking yourself questions about the consequences of your actions will help you make safe and healthful choices.Be careful though, teens and young adults aren’t finished emotionally maturing until between