A spectacular slide show presentation by Mr. Berkheimer and some very, very special guest speakers!
Introduction to Minerals Concrete – sand, gravel, crushed limestone Salt Copper
Introduction to Minerals Mineral Distribution and Formation Some minerals very abundant (e.g., Al, Fe) Some are very scarce (e.g., Cu, Mo) Some may be found about anywhere, but in such low abundance mining is unprofitable
Introduction to Minerals Mineral Distribution and Formation Formation of Mineral Deposits Magmatic concentration Hydrothermal processes Sedimentation Evaporation
Introduction to Minerals How Minerals are Found, Extracted, and Processed Discovering Mineral Deposits –aerial photos / satellite images –examine magnetic field –seismographs
Introduction to Minerals How Minerals are Found, Extracted, and Processed Discovering Mineral Deposits Extracting Minerals
Copper Ore being loaded into a 300 ton truck for transport to the crusher.
Conveyors and trucks deposit coarse ore on a heap leach pad, which has a series of pipes and hoses dispensing a diluted sulfuric acid solution to the ore. Copper is dissolved and flows to a pond at the bottom of the pad. This process can take several months.
Is this our soil pit??? No Silly, This is one of the largest earth movers in the world working in a copper strip mine!!!
Large man-made piles of mining waste that stretch for several miles. Piles are on the edge of the town of Globe, Arizona.
Four grinding lines composed of four semi- autogenous grinding (SAG) mills and eight ball mills and corresponding flotation cells. Hey Jillian, these machines look identical! Wow Jordan! How could anyone tell them apart???
The technically advanced and cleanest smelter in the world is part of an $880 million modernization program.
You might see environmental destruction, but I see growing economies and financial wealth! Death to the Lorax, Long live the Wilton!!!
Introduction to Minerals How Minerals are Found, Extracted, and Processed Discovering Mineral Deposits Extracting Minerals Processing Minerals
Environmental Implications of Minerals Mining and the Environment Disturbs large areas of land Uses huge quantities of water Affects water quality Cost-benefit Analysis of Mine Development Benefits of the mining vs. Preservation of the land
Environmental Implications of Minerals Environmental Impacts of Refining Minerals We need to make use of the waste!
Environmental Implications of Minerals Environmental Impacts of Refining Minerals The problem of tailings
Environmental Implications of Minerals Environmental Impacts of Refining Minerals Case-in-Point: Copper Basin, TN
In southeast Tennessee, decades of extensive copper and sulfur mining degraded the once lush area known as the Copper Basin Mining District Site in Polk County. By the late 1800s, vegetation refused to grow, acidic conditions and leaching metals impaired the water quality and deforestation resulted in severe erosion. Abandoned and collapsing mine works and other deteriorating facilities and waste piles posed significant physical hazards.
Environmental Implications of Minerals Restoration of Mining Lands Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act
The “Wilds” in Southern Ohio is an example of the success of the surface mining control and reclamation act!
Environmental Implications of Minerals Restoration of Mining Lands Creative Approaches to Cleaning Up Mining Areas Conversion to wetlands Phytoremediation Phytoremediaton is using plants to clean soil from contaminants!
Minerals: An International Perspective Many developed nations have observed significant environmental damage due to mining Many developed nations exacerbate problem by having mining interests in developing countries
Minerals: An International Perspective U.S. and World Use North American consumption of selected metals Another example of the U.S. using up more than it’s fair share of resources!
Minerals: An International Perspective Distribution Versus Consumption Some minerals needed for many industrial processes but only found in abundance in few places Results in dependence Stockpiling common
Minerals: An International Perspective Will We Run Out of Important Minerals?
Increasing the Supply of Minerals Locating and Mining New Deposits Many known deposits haven’t been exploited because: accessibility problems technology issues too deep Don’t let Wilton know about this problem! He will exploit all of the earth’s resources even further!
Increasing the Supply of Minerals Minerals in Antarctica Antartic Treaty (1961) limits activities in Antarctica If significant mineral deposits were found, should they be exploited? Leave Antarctica alone! There are plenty of minerals on Vulcan! Leave my Planet alone!
Increasing the Supply of Minerals Minerals from the Ocean Manganese nodules
Increasing the Supply of Minerals Minerals from the Ocean If I could own the ocean, I could control the world’s manganese supply!
Increasing the Supply of Minerals Advanced Mining and Processing Technologies Ability to exploit low-grade ores Biomining Biomining is the use of microorganisms to extract metals and minerals from ores in the mining process. Ores of high quality are rapidly being depleted and biomining allows environmentally friendly ways of extracting metals from low-grade ores (ores that have small amounts of valuable metals scattered throughout).
Using Substitution and Conservation to Expand Mineral Supplies Finding Mineral Substitutes Substituting inexpensive / abundant resources for expensive / scarce resources Glass, plastics, and aluminum have substituted for tin!
Using Substitution and Conservation to Expand Mineral Supplies Mineral Conservation Reuse same product used over and over Recycling product is processed into another product Changing Our Mineral Requirements fight the “throw away” mentality
Wow, that was almost an interesting powerpoint, I stayed awake for most of it!