Presentation on theme: "Minerals and Mining. Minerals Concentration of naturally occurring elements in/on Earth. Formed over millions of yrs non-renewable resource."— Presentation transcript:
Minerals and Mining
Minerals Concentration of naturally occurring elements in/on Earth. Formed over millions of yrs non-renewable resource.
What We Mine?!? Metallic minerals: Iron, Copper, Aluminum Non-metallic minerals: salt, clay, sand Energy minerals: coal, oil, uranium Crushed Iron Sodium Chloride Crystal “Dur”rty Coal
Ore Rock that has metallic mineral. Usable stuff is the mineral Non-usable is called gangue landfill Gold Gangue
Smelter s Used to remove mineral from gangue in an ore major polluters (Runescape!).
Bauxite Most Important Aluminum Ore
Oxygen: The Most Abundant Element in the Earth’s Crust
Finding Mineral Deposits Use aerial photos and satellite images to see rock formations.
Finding Mineral Deposits Use planes w/ Geiger meter (uranium) or magnetometer (iron) Geiger Meter…Only $460! Magnetometer… Only $700!
Finding Mineral Deposits Drilling a deep well and extracting ore samples. Exploration Drilling
Surface Mining Minerals must be shallowly deposited. Removed rock and soil is called overburden or spoil.
Types of Surface Mining Open Pit Mining Dig hole and remove ores Fe, Cu, and Sand
Dredging (Sand) Draglines scrape up underwater mineral deposits Types of Surface Mining
Area Strip Mining Cut new strips away; spoil placed on side, mineral taken out. Types of Surface Mining
Mountaintop Removal Use TNT, huge shovels, and large machines to remove top of a mtn and expose coal underneath. Types of Surface Mining
Case Study Gold: Cyanide Heap Leaching Cyanide sprayed on low grade gold ore in a giant heap (pile). Gold flows down w/ cyanide and is collected at bottom of heap. Heap
Case Study Gold: Cyanide Heap Leaching Toxic to birds and mammals. Leach ponds can overflow H 2 O pollution Leaky liners? Leach Liner
Subsurface Mining Used to remove minerals deep in Earth’s surface. Less env. Impact
Types of Subsurface Mining Room and Pillar Machines are used to cut out minerals and are placed on a shuttle car. Scraper
Longwall Coal Mining Moveable steel props support cave while machinery cut off coal onto a conveyor belt. Types of Subsurface Mining
Collapse/subsidence of land from subsurface mines. Causes houses to tilt, sewer lines crack, gas mains break. Environmental Damage
Wind/water carry away [by erosion] toxic mining waste. Goes in food webs and watersheds. Environmental Damage
Habitat Loss!! Environmental Damage
Transportation of minerals global warming, lung probs. Environmental Damage
Acid mine drainage Bacteria eat FeS in spoil create H 2 SO 4 runs off into streams Environmental Damage
Surface Mining Reclamation and Control Act Mining ops must reclaim area after land has been used and abused. Must put aside $$$ to reclaim before mining op’s begin. States oversee Act. Land put back, trees grow, no toxic runoff!