Presentation on theme: "MINING. Overview StepsDescriptionEnvironmental Effects MiningRemoving mineral resources from the ground Mine wastes – acids and toxins Displacement of."— Presentation transcript:
Overview StepsDescriptionEnvironmental Effects MiningRemoving mineral resources from the ground Mine wastes – acids and toxins Displacement of native species Reclamation of land and recycling ProcessingRemoving ore from mined material Pollution Human health concerns UseDistribution to end user
Price Amount of ore Concentration Mining type Transportation costs Reclamation Will Site be Profitable?
Surface Mining –Pros: Safer Cost effective –Cons Removal of surface material Lots of waste material Ground and surface water issues Reclamation costs Extraction
Underground Mining –Pros Less surface destruction Less waste material Lower reclamation cost –Cons Unsafe Extraction
Intensive chemical processing Often uses extreme heat and toxic chemicals Chemical frequently leak into ground water Processing
Acid Mine Drainage –Acidic solution formed –All forms of mining –Enters groundwater and surface water –Damaging to fish and plant communities Environmental Impact
Erosion Sedimentation –Loosened surface material washes into surface water –Amounts vary: Amount disturbed, vegetation, soil, slope –Mainly surface mining –Most damaging to surface waters and wetlands –Harmful to plants, fish, and soil organisms Environmental Impacts
Toxic Compound Leachate –Compounds used to extract resources –Usually stored in retention ponds ponds leak into groundwater Animals attracted to pond –Slag leach Compounds leak from “treated” rock –Toxic to all organisms – plants, fish, soil organisms Environmental Impact
Habitat Modification –Process requires modification to surrounding areas –Aquatic, terrestrial, wetlands Water Usage –Often requires massive quantities –Results in drawdown or reduced surface flow –“Treated” water often returned to system Environmental Impact
Restoring the land to its original contours and replanting vegetation. Required by law (SMCRA 1977) Expensive Reclamation
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