Presentation on theme: "Nonrenewable Mineral Resources"— Presentation transcript:
1Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Chapter 15Nonrenewable Mineral Resources
2MINERALS, ROCKS, AND THE ROCK CYCLE The earth’s crust consists of solid inorganic elements and compounds called minerals that can sometimes be used as resources.Mineral resource: is a concentration of naturally occurring material in or on the earth’s crust that can be extracted and processed into useful materials at an affordable cost.
3General Classification of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources The U.S. Geological Survey classifies mineral resources into four major categories:Identified: known location, quantity, and quality or existence known based on direct evidence and measurements.Undiscovered: potential supplies that are assumed to exist.Reserves: identified resources that can be extracted profitably.Other: undiscovered or identified resources not classified as reserves
4General Classification of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Examples are fossil fuels (coal, oil), metallic minerals (copper, iron), and nonmetallic minerals (sand, gravel).Figure 15-7
5GEOLOGIC PROCESSESDeposits of nonrenewable mineral resources in the earth’s crust vary in their abundance and distribution.A very slow chemical cycle recycles three types of rock found in the earth’s crust:Sedimentary rock (sandstone, limestone).Metamorphic rock (slate, marble, quartzite).Igneous rock (granite, pumice, basalt).
7ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF USING MINERAL RESOURCES The extraction, processing, and use of mineral resources has a large environmental impact.Figure 15-9
8Fig. 15-9, p. 344 Surface mining Metal ore Separation of ore from gangueSmeltingMelting metalConversion to productDiscarding of product (scattered in environment)Figure 15.9Natural capital degradation: life cycle of a metal resource. Each step in this process uses large amounts of energy and produces air and water pollution and huge amounts of crushed rock and other forms of solid waste. The lower the grade of ore, the greater these environmental impacts.RecyclingFig. 15-9, p. 344
9Natural Capital Degradation Extracting, Processing, and Using Nonrenewable Mineral and Energy ResourcesStepsEnvironmental effectsMiningDisturbed land; mining accidents; health hazards, mine waste dumping, oil spills and blowouts; noise; ugliness; heatExploration, extractionProcessingTransportation, purification, manufacturingSolid wastes; radioactive material; air, water, and soil pollution; noise; safety and health hazards; ugliness; heatUseFigure 15.10Natural capital degradation: some harmful environmental effects of extracting, processing, and using nonrenewable mineral and energy resources. The energy required to carry out each step causes additional pollution and environmental degradation.Transportation or transmission to individual user, eventual use, and discardingNoise; ugliness; thermal water pollution; pollution of air, water, and soil; solid and radioactive wastes; safety and health hazards; heatFig , p. 344
10ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF USING MINERAL RESOURCES Minerals are removed through a variety of methods that vary widely in their costs, safety factors, and levels of environmental harm.A variety of methods are used based on mineral depth.Surface mining: shallow deposits are removed.Subsurface mining: deep deposits are removed.
11Open-pit MiningMachines dig holes and remove ores, sand, gravel, and stone.Toxic groundwater can accumulate at the bottom.Figure 15-11
12Area Strip MiningEarth movers strips away overburden, and giant shovels removes mineral deposit.Often leaves highly erodible hills of rubble called spoil banks.Figure 15-12
13Contour Strip Mining Used on hilly or mountainous terrain. Unless the land is restored, a wall of dirt is left in front of a highly erodible bank called a highwall.Figure 15-13
14Mountaintop RemovalMachinery removes the tops of mountains to expose coal.The resulting waste rock and dirt are dumped into the streams and valleys below.Figure 15-14
15Mining ImpactsMetal ores are smelted or treated with (potentially toxic) chemicals to extract the desired metal.Figure 15-15
16SUPPLIES OF MINERAL RESOURCES The future supply of a resource depends on its affordable supply and how rapidly that supply is used.A rising price for a scarce mineral resource can increase supplies and encourage more efficient use.
17SUPPLIES OF MINERAL RESOURCES Depletion curves for a renewable resource using three sets of assumptions.Dashed vertical lines represent times when 80% depletion occurs.Figure 15-16
18SUPPLIES OF MINERAL RESOURCES New technologies can increase the mining of low-grade ores at affordable prices, but harmful environmental effects can limit this approach.Most minerals in seawater and on the deep ocean floor cost too much to extract, and there are squabbles over who owns them.
19USING MINERAL RESOURCES MORE SUSTAINABLY Scientists and engineers are developing new types of materials as substitutes for many metals.Recycling valuable and scarce metals saves money and has a lower environmental impact then mining and extracting them from their ores.
20Sustainable Use of Nonrenewable Minerals SolutionsSustainable Use of Nonrenewable Minerals• Do not waste mineral resources.• Recycle and reuse 60–80% of mineral resources.• Include the harmful environmental costs of mining and processing minerals in the prices of items (full-cost pricing).• Reduce subsidies for mining mineral resources.• Increase subsidies for recycling, reuse, and finding less environmentally harmful substitutes.• Redesign manufacturing processes to use less mineral resources and to produce less pollution and waste.Figure 15.18Solutions: ways to achieve more sustainable use of nonrenewable mineral resources. QUESTION: Which two of the solutions do you think are the most important?• Have the mineral-based wastes of one manufacturing process become the raw materials for other processes.• Sell services instead of things.• Slow population growth.Fig , p. 351
21Case Study: The Ecoindustrial Revolution Growing signs point to an ecoindustrial revolution taking place over the next 50 years.The goal is to redesign industrial manufacturing processes to mimic how nature deals with wastes.Industries can interact in complex resource exchange webs in which wastes from manufacturer become raw materials for another.
22Sulfuric acid producer SludgePharmaceutical plantLocal farmersSludgeGreenhousesWaste heatWaste heatWaste heatFish farmingWaste heatSurplus natural gasElectric power plantFly ashOil refinerySurplus sulfurWaste calcium sulfateFigure 15.19Solutions: the industrial ecosystem in Kalundborg, Denmark, reduces waste production by mimicking a natural food web. The wastes of one business become the raw materials for another. QUESTION: Is there an industrial ecosystem near where you live or go to school? If not, why not?Waste heatCement manufacturerSurplus natural gasSulfuric acid producerWallboard factoryArea homesFig , p. 352