Presentation on theme: "1Al-Andalus 711 - 1492. 2 The Arab Invasion and Cultural Legacy - Decisive battle: Guadalete in 711 AD – crossed the straits and into Spain, defeated."— Presentation transcript:
2 The Arab Invasion and Cultural Legacy - Decisive battle: Guadalete in 711 AD – crossed the straits and into Spain, defeated the Visigoth army lead by King Roderic. Occupied Cordoba and Toledo. -After Guadalete, Muslims would conquer the Peninsula in less than 10 years and would stay in Spain until 1492 -Spain was first ruled as part of the Emirate of Damascus but in 756 it became independent. This was part of a spectacular expansion of Islam after Mohammed died in 632, which extended from Spain until the Punjab, under the authority of the Umayyad caliph in Damascus. Caliph: a spiritual leader of Islam, claiming succession from Muhammad. Caliphate: The office or jurisdiction of a caliph
4 Caliphate – from Damascus to Baghdad ► Since 661 the Umayyad dynasty had dominated the caliphate in Damascus. ► In 750 overthrown by a rival dynasty, the Abbasids, and move the capital from Damascus to Baghdad in 762. ► The Abbasids kill most of Umayyad dynasty, except the grandson of the caliph – Abd al-Rahman I. ► He escaped, went to Al Andalus in 755. Declares himself Emir of Al Andalus in 756. ► Extends his control over most of the south and central part of Spain. ► Al Andalus is an independent Emirate 756-929
6 Abd ar Rahman III (912-961) ► Culturally, this is a golden period. Great Mosque of Cordoba extended. Becomes center of learning (70 libraries- largest had 600,000 books) Science, geography, history, and philosophy. Translate Greek scientific books into Arabic. ► Combined Roman technology with Arabic technology, creating irrigation options previously unavailable. ► Started to grow citrus, bananas, artichokes, cotton, rice, wheat and sugar-cane. In the highland areas they grew olives, vines, figs, population rises etc.
7 Cultural Contributions ► People Ziryab- “polymath” Al-Mutamid- poet/king Al-Idrisi- geographer Averroes- philosopher, father of secular thought (gov. and religion should be seperate Maimonides- Jewish philosopher Daily Life in Andalucia Civilian architecture GastronomyLANGUAGE 4,000 words in Spanish have Arabic origen
8 Ziryab: Man/Myth ► Polymath: person who is good at many things ► Poet, musician, singer, cosmetologist, fashion designer, astronomer, botanist, geographer ► Music- Lute → Spanish guitar ► New Year celebrations ► 3 course meals, glassware ► Toothpaste, deodorant, shaving for men
9 The "Mezquita de Cordoba" or Mosque of Cordoba was begun in 784 by Abd al-Rahman I when he bought the Visigoth basilica of San Vicente, tore it down, and built the mosque. Mezquita (Mosque)
10 Mezquita (Mosque) Architecture flourished during this period Painting and sculpture used mostly only as decoration for the amazing buildings. Built mostly of inexpensive materials (brick, plaster, tile) Extensive decoration (nearly every surface) gave an appearance of wealth and abundance Islam prohibits the representation of animals. Therefore we see many geometric and botanic designs.
12 ► Unitary Political authority in the caliphate begins to break up in the 11 th century. After 2 decades of civil war, the last caliph is deposed in 1031. ► The caliphate is replaced by a number of successor states, known as taifa states. This comes from ‘faction’ or ‘party’ in Arabic.
13 ► Almoravids – fundamentalist Islamic sect, from (now) Morocco saw that Islamic law was scandalously being flouted (11 th century), and invade in 1086. ► Al Andalus – reunited under militant, intolerant leadership. ► Christians also become more militant – with the religious orders which vowed to take back ‘Christian’ land. Reconquista starts in earnest in 12 th century.
14 The Nasrid dynasty The last Muslim dynasty in Spain. The Nasrid dynasty rose to power after the defeat of the Almohad dynasty in 1212 at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (against an alliance of Christian kingdoms). Twenty different kings ruled Granada from the founding of the dynasty in 1238 by Muhammed I ibn Nasr until January 2, 1492, when Sultan Boabdil surrendered to the Christian Spanish kingdom. Today, the most visible evidence of the Nasrids is the Alhambra palace complex built under their rule. Twenty different kings ruled Granada from the founding of the dynasty in 1238 by Muhammed I ibn Nasr until January 2, 1492, when Sultan Boabdil surrendered to the Christian Spanish kingdom. Today, the most visible evidence of the Nasrids is the Alhambra palace complex built under their rule.
16 Alhambra ► Important to create cool and comfortable spaces, play of light and shade, and the use of water (pools, fountains, waterfalls) ► Use of calligraphy as decoration using phrases from the Koran and poems. ► Roof usually flat and made of wood, sometimes used copulas instead ► Use of pillars, columns, and arches. Horseshoe (Moorish) arch Polylobate arch