We will present the happenings in Spain from while Arabs were in the Iberian Peninsula Studying past Muslim historical events shows their influence on modern Spain Modern practicing Mosque in Cordoba.
Prior to the Arrival of the Moors… The Legend says that Roderic impregnated Julian’s (count of Ceuta) daughter. After, a request was made of the assistance of Musa Ibn Nusay Julian promised ships to carry Ibn Nusayr toops acoss the Strait of Hercules(Straight of Gibraltar)
The Dependent Emirate (711 to 756) April 30 th of 711, Beber leader Tariq ibn-ziyad landed at Gibraltar The Battle of Guadalete (turning point) The Battle of Tours in *Tariq ibn-ziyad*
The Independent Emirate (756 to 929) 756- the exiled prince Abd-ar-Rahman I established himself as the Emir of Codoba. And established a tenuous rule ove much of Al- Andalus For the next century and a half, his descendants continued as emirs of Cordoba. In 929 Abd-al-Rahman III proclaimed himself Caliph
All Caliphs of Córdoba were members of the Umayyad dynasty Cordoba reached its peak under these Caliphate rulers Caliphate rule existed until 1031 when it was fractured into a number of independent taifas
Caliphate Rulers Abd-ar-rahman III (912–961) Allowed tolerance and freedom of religion Repelled enemies with alliances in Africa al-Hakam II (961–976) Peace with Christian kingdoms Stability of agriculture Economic and philosophic improvements Mezquita Hisham II (976–1013) Gained title at age ten Almansur Dictator rule
Muslim praise and value of gardens Economy highly developed craftsmanship, modern agricultural techniques based on money (gold cordobesa money) Culture Library with 400,000 volumes Highly philosophical
Mezquita Cathedral and Mosque Constructed during the period of the Caliphate Looks towards Mecca Horseshoe semicircular shaped prayer room Muslim influence: walls of flowers, fountains, architecture (arches, relief work) Jewish influence: statues, stars
After the death of the caliphate in Cordoba, only a few decades passed before the complete collapse of Muslim presence was unstoppable. These kings, formerly known as party kings (in Arabic mulukal-tawa'if, from the word ta'ifah), continued to improve upon modern arts and learning by competing with one another for the most spectacular states. In doing so, they took in many scientist and artist who needed the resources to improve upon their own skills. From 1008 to 1031, a period of anarchy in the Al-Andalus caused more or less 24 individual smaller states to form. These rulers, owning their own territories, were known as the muluk al- tawa'if, and each of these states did not contain enough power through force to become the sole caliphate of the lands.
When Christian kingdoms began taking over weak Taifa kingdoms, by "exacting tribute", no one in the Al Andalus took action to stop the conversions. Much of the north had already been taken over by the ever increasing presence of the Christians. By 1085 the Castilians conquered the important city of Toledo and so the Taifas kings were forced to ask the new Almoravid rulerin Morocco (Yusuf ibn Tashufin) for assistance. The Almoravids (in Arabic, "The Garrisoned Ones") were a dynasty risen from the Amazighs (Berbers) of Morocco, and until this time were steadfast to assist the taifa kings.
Unfortunately in 1090 Yusuf decided that his help was not needed, and the petty kings were refused help. Twice the small states in the land had called for assistance from the northern caliphates in Africa, but the Almohads and Almoravids over the next decades could not unify Al Andalus, only pushing the inevitable in
Berber (Muslim dynasty) founded in the 12 th century Conquered all Northern Africa along with Al-Andalus known as the Moorish Iberia
Berber dynasty from the Sahara Yusuf ibn Tashfin was the Amir al Muslimin Ali ibn Yusuf, Sintra, and Santarem were in charge after Yusuf´s death
Abd al-Mu’Min al- Kumi and the Almohads defeated the ruling Almoravids The conquered city of Marrakech by the Almohads marked the end of the Almoravids Extended his power all over northern Africa as far as Libya The Almohads transferred their capital to Seville
Gharnata Almohads Nasrid Dynasty Surrendered by Boabdil on Jan 2, 1492 Resulting Influence: El Flamenco Las Alpujarras Architecture (Alhambra)
Almohads Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212 Almohad Army Despeñaperros Pass Moorish Period – Nasrid Dynasty Political instability Golden Age of Andalucia Cultural Flowering
Decline of Empire Records destroyed Possible Reasons: Internal Struggles Dynastic and factional strife Lacking sufficient forces Refusing to pay tribute to King of Castile
Gardens and presence of flowers in parks and plazas Flamenco dance (Muslim, Jewish, and gypsy roots) Arabic Baths Architecture: gothic style, relief work, arches Courtyards