Presentation on theme: "History of the Al-Andalus"— Presentation transcript:
1History of the Al-Andalus Caitlin Adams**Emily Aksak**Allan NovohatskiDillon Ramos**Colin Grayson
2Modern practicing Mosque in Cordoba. IntroductionWe will present the happenings in Spain from while Arabs were in the Iberian PeninsulaStudying past Muslim historical events shows their influence on modern SpainModern practicing Mosque in Cordoba.
3Prior to the Arrival of the Moors… Initial InvasionPrior to the Arrival of the Moors…The Legend says that Roderic impregnated Julian’s (count of Ceuta) daughter.After, a request was made of the assistance of Musa Ibn NusayJulian promised ships to carry Ibn Nusayr toops acoss the Strait of Hercules(Straight of Gibraltar)711-929929-1031
4The Dependent Emirate (711 to 756) Initial InvasionThe Dependent Emirate (711 to 756)April 30th of 711, Beber leader Tariq ibn-ziyad landed at GibraltarThe Battle of Guadalete (turning point)The Battle of Tours in 732*Tariq ibn-ziyad*711-929929-1031
5The Independent Emirate (756 to 929) Initial InvasionThe Independent Emirate (756 to 929)756- the exiled prince Abd-ar-Rahman I established himself as the Emir of Codoba.And established a tenuous rule ove much of Al-AndalusFor the next century and a half, his descendants continued as emirs of Cordoba.In 929 Abd-al-Rahman III proclaimed himself Caliph711-929929-1031
6The Caliphate of Cordoba All Caliphs of Córdoba were members of the Umayyad dynastyCordoba reached its peak under these Caliphate rulersCaliphate rule existed until 1031 when it was fractured into a number of independent taifas711-929929-1031
7The Caliphate of Cordoba Caliphate RulersAbd-ar-rahman III (912–961)Allowed tolerance and freedom of religionRepelled enemies with alliances in Africaal-Hakam II (961–976)Peace with Christian kingdomsStability of agricultureEconomic and philosophic improvementsMezquitaHisham II (976–1013)Gained title at age tenAlmansurDictator ruleEconomic (expanded road systems and markets) and philosophic improvements (creation of library and translation of works)711-929929-1031
8The Caliphate of Cordoba Economyhighly developed craftsmanship, modern agricultural techniquesbased on money (gold cordobesa money)CultureLibrary with 400,000 volumesHighly philosophicalMuslim praise and value of gardens711-929929-1031
9The Caliphate of Cordoba MezquitaCathedral and MosqueConstructed during the period of the CaliphateLooks towards MeccaHorseshoe semicircular shaped prayer roomMuslim influence: walls of flowers, fountains, architecture (arches, relief work)Jewish influence: statues, stars711-929929-1031
10Rain of the Taifas Kingdoms After the death of the caliphate in Cordoba, only a few decades passed before the complete collapse of Muslim presence was unstoppable.These kings, formerly known as party kings (in Arabic mulukal-tawa'if, from the word ta'ifah), continued to improve upon modern arts and learning by competing with one another for the most spectacular states.In doing so, they took in many scientist and artist who needed the resources to improve upon their own skills.From 1008 to 1031, a period of anarchy in the Al-Andalus caused more or less 24 individual smaller states to form.These rulers, owning their own territories, were known as the muluk al-tawa'if, and each of these states did not contain enough power through force to become the sole caliphate of the lands.
11Taifas KingdomsWhen Christian kingdoms began taking over weak Taifa kingdoms, by "exacting tribute", no one in the Al Andalus took action to stop the conversions.Much of the north had already been taken over by the ever increasing presence of the Christians.By 1085 the Castilians conquered the important city of Toledo and so the Taifas kings were forced to ask the new Almoravid ruler in Morocco (Yusuf ibn Tashufin) for assistance.The Almoravids (in Arabic, "The Garrisoned Ones") were a dynasty risen from the Amazighs (Berbers) of Morocco, and until this time were steadfast to assist the taifa kings.
12Unfortunately in 1090 Yusuf decided that his help was not needed, and the petty kings were refused help.Twice the small states in the land had called for assistance from the northern caliphates in Africa, but the Almohads and Almoravids over the next decades could not unify Al Andalus, only pushing the inevitable in
13Almohads and Almoravids Berber (Muslim dynasty) founded in the 12th centuryConquered all Northern Africa along with Al-Andalus known as the Moorish Iberia711-929929-1031
14Almohads and Almoravids Berber dynasty from the Sahara1097- Yusuf ibn Tashfin was the Amir al Muslimin1119- Ali ibn Yusuf, Sintra, and Santarem were in charge after Yusuf´s death711-929929-1031
15Almohads and Almoravids 1130- Abd al-Mu’Min al-Kumi and the Almohads defeated the ruling Almoravids1147- The conquered city of Marrakech by the Almohads marked the end of the AlmoravidsExtended his power all over northern Africa as far as Libya1170- The Almohads transferred their capital to Seville711-929929-1031
16Decline Kingdom of Granada GharnataAlmohadsNasrid DynastySurrendered by Boabdil on Jan 2, 1492Resulting Influence:El FlamencoLas AlpujarrasArchitecture (Alhambra)711-929929-1031
17Decline Kingdom of Granada AlmohadsBattle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212Almohad ArmyDespeñaperros PassMoorish Period – Nasrid DynastyPolitical instabilityGolden Age of AndaluciaCultural Flowering711-929929-1031
18Decline Kingdom of Granada Decline of EmpireRecords destroyedPossible Reasons:Internal StrugglesDynastic and factional strifeLacking sufficient forcesRefusing to pay tribute to King of Castile711-929929-1031
19Modern arab influenceGardens and presence of flowers in parks and plazasFlamenco dance (Muslim, Jewish, and gypsy roots)Arabic BathsArchitecture: gothic style, relief work, archesCourtyards