Presentation on theme: "Sentences that Bend Crafting Great Sentences using interrupters, non-restrictive elements (aka. parenthetical, non-defining, or non-essential clauses and."— Presentation transcript:
Sentences that Bend Crafting Great Sentences using interrupters, non-restrictive elements (aka. parenthetical, non-defining, or non-essential clauses and phrases)
Martin Luther King Jr. is played by David Oyelowo. David Oyelowo is a British actor. David Oyelowo played the firebrand activist son of Forest Whitaker’s character in Lee Daniel’s The Butler. He miracuously rescues the flesh- and-blood man from the myth. He reveals to us the King who is not in our history books. He reveals to us the King who has humor, human failings, and self- doubt.
As King, British actor David Oyelowo (who played the firebrand activist son of Forest Whitaker's character in Lee Daniels' The Butler) miraculously rescues the flesh-and-blood man from the myth. He reveals to us the King who's not in our history books — his humor, his human failings, and his self-doubt. Just as important, he nails not only King's physical appearance and charisma but also the unique cadence of his soaring oratory. He's magnificent.
Why use non-restrictive elements? -Makes your writing more concise -Allows you to include more background (which can build your ethos) -Creates variation in your writing -Creates complexity by showing that you can create a hierarchy of information
The Super-Simple Appositive Mr. Abrams, a great man, taught me everything I know. A great man, Mr. Abrams taught me everything I know. The stapler, a Clicker3000, is on the desk. Ms. Hardesty, the assistant principal at Hastings High School, is a great singer. I gave my lunch to Marissa, a horrible human being.
Appositive Basics… A noun phrase that modifies another noun It must be placed next to the noun it modifies It must have commas around it It can go any place in a sentence It should be a piece of background information that is non-essential
Common mechanical appositive error… (SAT question) Clara Barton founded the American branch of the Red Cross, a nurse who was sometimes called the "angel of the battlefield." A) Clara Barton founded the American branch of the Red Cross, B) The founder of the American branch of the Red Cross was Clara Barton, C) It was Clara Barton founding the American branch of the Red Cross, D) Clara Barton, who founded the American branch of the Red Cross, she was E) In founding the American branch of the Red Cross, Clara Barton was
A common stylistic error with the appositive is putting the most important of two defining noun phrases in the non-restrictive spot. If I was writing a plot synopsis of Star Wars this would be bad… Darth Vader, the arch-nemesis of Luke Skywalker, was voiced by James Earl Jones.
Non-Restrictive Adjectives Ross Abrams, tall and dapper, may be the best dresser I have ever met. The train, dirty right down to its rusted wheels, squealed out of the station. Broken and bruised, the man hobbled down the street.
How could we make those adjectives restrictive? Ross Abrams, tall and dapper, may be the best dresser I have ever met. The train, dirty right down to its rusted wheels, squealed out of the station. Broken and bruised, the man hobbled down the street.
Non-restrictive Prepositional Phrase - Phrase that defines where or when something/someone is (over, under, with, in, before, after, behind, beside, upon, across, within, during).
Non-Restrictive Prepositional Phrases Which is correct? The balloons, over our heads by hundreds of feet, were shifting dangerously in the wind. The balloons over our head by hundreds of feet were shifting dangerously in the wind.
Under a red sun, she pushed out into the great unknown. Miranda falls out of her father’s favor when she runs away to the farthest corner of the island, behind the sharp rocks.
Non-restrictive Participle Phrases - a present participle is a verb that has “ing” at the end of it. - the past participle has “ed” at the end of it
Ross Abrams, knowing he is a very special human being, teaches in order to spread joy to all those he works with. Offended by the movie, Chuck left after the first ten minutes.
Common Error – the dangling modifier Hoping to excuse my lateness, the note was written and given to my teacher. Coming out of the market, the bananas fell on the pavement. Freshly painted, Jim left the room to dry. Driving like a maniac, the deer was hit and killed.
Non-Restrictive Clause Adele Adkins, who had one of the best-selling albums of 2012, plans on releasing a new album this year. Students who have young children are invited to use the free daycare center. I lent some money to Earl, whose house was destroyed in the flood. A physician who smokes and overeats has no right to criticize the personal habits of his patients.
The car that is green hit me. The car, which was green, hit me.
Parentheses and Em-Dashes! While you can absolutely use commas to create non-restrictive interrupters, you can also use parentheses and em-dashes.
non-restrictive in parentheses: “really background information” Ross Abrams (class of 99) graduates. non-restrictive in between commas: “okay, this is somewhat important but still non-essential” Ross Abrams, class of 99, graduates. non-restrictive with em-dashes: “dude, this is an aside but it’s worth noticing!” Ross Abrams – class of 99 – graduates.