Presentation on theme: "English III. Participles Participles are verb forms used to modify nouns. Ex: The swinging sign creaked in the wind. Ex: The unexpected guest made a speech."— Presentation transcript:
Participles Participles are verb forms used to modify nouns. Ex: The swinging sign creaked in the wind. Ex: The unexpected guest made a speech.
Present participles ALWAYS end in –ing. They are the form used with is, am, and are in verb phrases. Ex: is looking, am running, are reading
Past participles usually end in –ed or –d. They are the form used with have, has, and had in verb phrases. Ex: have looked, has stopped, had hopped A few past participles are irregularly formed (torn, sold, burnt, read, etc._ Ex: have flown, had slept, has fought
Participial Phrases Participial phrases are made up of participles and accompanying modifiers. Ex: The jogger running in the puddle is going to be very wet and cold.
Just like in the previous example of simple participles, participial phrases can be made up of present or past participles and accompanying modifiers. Ex: The police scattered the protesters loitering outside the museum. Ex: The Great Smoky Mountains National Park contains rolling hills blanketed by bluish haze.
Simple participles usually appear immediately before the noun/pronoun modified. Participial phrases follow the noun/pronoun modified.
Participial Phrase Fragments Participial phrase fragments occur when a complete thought is not expressed. Ex: Freddy stayed up late. Working on an overdue assignment.
Practice Finish each incomplete sentence by joining it with the complete sentence next to it. 1. Waiting for your turn to see the doctor. You can get nervous. 2. My visits to the doctor always start out the same way. Getting my blood pressure checked by the nurse. 3. Her clothes being so out of style. She decided to buy new ones.
Relative Pronouns A relative pronoun is a pronoun that marks a relative clause with a larger sentence. A relative pronoun provides more information about the antecedent.
Who, whose, whom We can use who (never after a preposition), whose, and whom (after a preposition) for people as a relative pronoun. Ex: John, who is 21 today, is happy. Ex: Susan, whom you know, will try to buy their car. Ex: The man to whom you were writing is the Dean of our school.
Whose Can be used with or without a preposition Can replace a human being or a thing Is always followed by a noun without an article. Ex: John, whose father is a physician, will be here soon. Ex: John, with whose children you play tennis, is a Medical Doctor. Ex: The book, whose author died yesterday, is a masterpiece. Ex: The drug, whose discovery was expected, will cure thousands.
Which Subject Ex: The drug, which was to prove effective, helped to wipe out the disease. Object Ex: The experiment, which he thought was absolutely essential, did not teach us anything.
That That is both a subject and an object. That can replace who, whom, and which. That has to be used after a superlative. That has to be used after the first, the last, the only, it is …, very (adverb), all When that is an object, it can be omitted. The relative that must not be used after a comma (,) or a preposition
Examples It is the best example that I can find. The first scientist that carried out the experiment successfully won a Nobel Prize. The last thing that you should do is stop trying. The only time that the computer crashed I lost all the data that I had stored. You gave me the very thing that I wanted.
That vs. Who The computer scientist, who were asked to design a faster program, were interviewed by the boss. (all the computer scientists were interviewed by the boss) The computer scientists that were asked to design a faster program were interviewed by the boss. (i.e., only those that were asked to work, not the others)
Omitting That The computer that he bought is a very old used computer. The computer he bought is very old.
What vs. Which What I like in this place is to be served by nice waitresses! The waitress is pretty here, which is an added attraction! What I like about this house is it size. This house is huge, which is convenient.
Combining Sentences When combining to sentences with the same subject, omit the subject and use a relative pronoun. Ex: I like oranges. Oranges are delicious. I like oranges which are delicious.