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Maps and Images for McKay 8e A History of Western Society Chapter 12 The Crisis of the Later Middle Ages Cover Slide Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.

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Presentation on theme: "Maps and Images for McKay 8e A History of Western Society Chapter 12 The Crisis of the Later Middle Ages Cover Slide Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company."— Presentation transcript:

1 Maps and Images for McKay 8e A History of Western Society Chapter 12 The Crisis of the Later Middle Ages Cover Slide Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

2 Anatomical Man The Limbourg brothers were commissioned to produce Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, illustrations for each month of the year. Immediately following the calendar is this full-page rendering of Anatomical Man. Scholars assume that the Limbourgs' inclusion of it reflects Charles V's passionate interest in astrology. The miniature purports to illustrate the effect of the stars of the zodiac on the human body. The inscriptions in the corners indicate that human temperaments are affected by the mixture of the traditional four humors, as well as by the conditions of heat and moisture, particularly as they are associated with being either male or female. The front figure represents the feminine, and the figure in the back symbolizes the masculine. An ellipse bearing the signs of the zodiac surrounds the figures. (R.M.N./Art Resource, NY) Anatomical Man Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

3 Battle of Crecy, 1346 Pitched battles were unusual in the Hundred Years' War. At the Battle of Crecy, the English (on the right with lions on their royal standard) scored a spectacular victory. The longbow proved a more effective weapon over the French crossbow, but characteristically the artist concentrated on the aristocratic knights. (Bibliotheque nationale de France) Battle of Crecy, 1346 Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

4 Christine de Pisan Christine de Pisan (1363?-1434?), married at age 15 to a court secretary, came into contact with educated men who introduced her to Latin prose and the works of Petrarch and Boccaccio. At the age of 25, widowed and grieving, she began to write poetry and, later, turned her interest toward the writers of antiquity. The success of her works accorded her the patronage of such distinguished people as Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, and Queen Isabella of Bavaria. She is best remembered for her two extended works on the role of women in society: The Book of the City of Ladies (1405) and The Book of Three Virtues (also known as The Treasury of the City of Ladies). The latter volume was dedicated to Marguerite of Burgundy and established the criteria for women who desired to live in the city. In this manuscript illustration Christine de Pisan writes her Collected Works. (British Library) Christine de Pisan Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

5 Dante, Inferno In this frontispiece from an early manuscript of Dante's Divine Comedy, Dante, wearing a red robe, is guided by Virgil, in blue, through the agonies of hell. (Bibliotheque nationale de France) Dante, Inferno Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

6 English view of Irish Depicting a subject or colonial people as barbaric and uncivilized has long been a way of denigrating and dehumanizing the enemy. In this thirteenth-century miniature showing the English view of the Irish, a king (in a bath) and his courtiers devour horseflesh with their hands, without plates or eating utensils. (Bodleian Library, Oxford) English view of Irish Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

7 Execution of Jan Hus Jan Hus, born in Husinec in southern Bohemia (ca. 1369), was tragically burnt at the stake in During his twelve years as a university lecturer, Hus denounced superstition, the sale of indulgences, and other abuses. The people of Prague seemed to find his denunciations of an overendowed church appealing. He went into exile where he continued to dispute papal authority. In 1413 the emperor Sigismund urged the calling of a general council to end the schism. Hus was invited and granted safe conduct. Instead he was arrested, his teachings banned, and his books burned. In 1990, the date of his execution was declared a Czech national holiday. (University Library, Prague) Execution of Jan Hus Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

8 John Ball This miniature depicts John Ball, a priest of Kent, preaching his radical egalitarianism out-of- doors after Mass. All contemporary writers blamed Ball for fomenting the rebellion of But the evidence of peasant demands shows that they were limited and local: hunting rights in the woods, freedom from miscellaneous payments, and exemption from special work on the lord's bridges or parks. (Private Collection) John Ball Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

9 Prostitute inviting traveling merchant Poverty and male violence drove women into prostitution, which, though denounced by moralists, was accepted as a normal part of the medieval social fabric. In the cities and larger towns where prostitution flourished, public officials passed laws requiring prostitutes to wear a special mark on their clothing and regulated hours of business. They forbade women to drag men into their houses (as we see the prostitute doing in this illustration, as she invites a traveling merchant into her house), and denied business to women with the "burning sickness," gonorrhea. (Bodleian Library, Oxford) Prostitute inviting traveling merchant Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

10 Roman de Fauvel illustration Written by members of the French court, Roman de Fauvel is an allegory containing 150 musical compositions ranging from monophonic Gregorian chants to secular motets. The main character is Fauvel, a donkey, whose name is an acronym for six vices-- Flattery, Avarice, Untruthfulness, Variability, Envy, and Laziness. (Bibliotheque nationale de France/The Bridgeman Art Library International) Roman de Fauvel illustration Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

11 Schoolmaster and wife teaching Ambrosius Holbein, elder brother of the more famous Hans Holbein, produced this signboard for the Swiss educator Myconius. It is an excellent example of what we would call commercial art--art used to advertise, in this case Myconius's profession. The German script above promised that all who enrolled would learn to read and write. By modern standards the classroom seems bleak: the windows have glass panes but they don't admit much light, and the schoolmaster is prepared to use the stick if the boy makes a mistake. (Offentliche Kunstsammlung Basel) Schoolmaster and wife teaching Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

12 Statue of Ferdinand All governments try to cultivate a popular image. For Ferdinand and Isabella, it was the appearance of piety. Contemporaries, such as the Burgundian sculptor Felipe Bigarny, portrayed them as paragons of Christian piety, as shown in this carved and painted wooden effigy of Ferdinand kneeling in the royal chapter of Granada Cathedral, where he was buried in (Laurie Platt Winfrey, Inc.) Statue of Ferdinand Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

13 Tres Rich Heures: February The late Gothic style of manuscript illumination was defined by the Limbourg brothers--Jean, Paul, and Herman--who flourished as artists during the late fourteenth century and the early fifteenth century. They were commissioned by the Duke of Berry to complete two books of hours, a personal book of devotions for laypeople for the calendar year. The last commission they undertook for the duke was Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, begun in It is, perhaps, the finest example of manuscript illumination ever. The brothers were able to complete illustrations for eleven of the months; another artist completed November. At the top of each calendar page is a two-tiered arch. The outer arch consists of the zodiac sign, the inner arch shows the blue dome of heaven and Apollo, and below the arch is the labor associated with each, as is evident in this snowy February scene. (Victoria & Albert Museum/The Bridgeman Art Library International) Tres Rich Heures: February Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

14 Map: England and France in the Hundred Years' War England and France in the Hundred Years' War The succession of maps depicts both why hit-and-run tactics worked for the English early in the war and why the English were ultimately unable to defeat the French and take control of all of France. (Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.) Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

15 Map: The Progress of the Black Death The Progress of the Black Death The Black Death did not advance evenly across Europe; rather, as is clear from the dates at which it struck various regions, it followed the main lines of trade and communication. (Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.) Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

16 Map: Fourteenth-century Peasant Revolts Fourteenth-century Peasant Revolts In the later Middle Ages and early modern times, peasant and urban uprisings were endemic, as common as factory strikes in the industrial world. The threat of insurrection served to check unlimited exploitation. (Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.) Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.


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