2 The Middle Ages The Big Idea Christianity and social systems influenced life in Europe in the Middle Ages.Main IdeasThe Christian church influenced nearly every aspect of society in the Middle Ages.Complicated political and economic systems governed life in the Middle Ages.The period after 1000 was a time of great changes in medieval society.
3 Main Idea 1: The Christian church influenced nearly every aspect of society in the Middle Ages. The Middle Ages in Europe lasted from about 500 to about 1500.The Middle Ages are also known as the medieval period.Nearly everyone in Europe in the Middle Ages was Christian. Europeans felt tied together by their beliefs.Almost no part of life in Europe was unaffected by the Christian church and its teachings.
5 The Church’s Roles Politics Church leaders were also political leaders.The pope, the head of the church, was one of the most powerful people in Europe.The pope even had the power to start wars, such as the Crusades.ArtMost art in the Middle Ages was influenced by the church.Art, literature, and music dealt with religious themes.A new style of architecture called Gothic architecture was used for large churches.Daily LifePeople’s lives often centered around their local church.Markets, festivals, and ceremonies were held in churches.Priests advised people on how to live and kept written records for them.
6 Main Idea 2: Complicated political and economic systems governed life in the Middle Ages. Feudal SystemPolitical system based on exchange of land for military serviceNobles gave land to knights.Knights promised to serve nobles loyally, especially in war.Manor SystemEconomic system centered on large estates called manorsNobles owned manors but needed workers.Peasants and serfs lived on the manor and worked the fields. In exchange for a place to live, they gave the noble most of the harvest.
8 Towns and TradeNot everyone in Europe lived on manors. Some lived in towns, which were usually small, dirty, and dark.Many people who lived in towns worked as traders.After the year 1000 trade increased dramatically.As trade grew, more people moved to cities. As cities became larger, they became centers of culture and wealth.
9 Main Idea 3: The period after 1000 was a time of great changes in medieval society. Document signed by King John of England in 1215Stated that the king had to obey the lawConsidered an early step toward democracyMagna CartaSwept through Europe after 1347Killed up to a third of Europe’s populationBlack DeathFought between England and FranceFrench victory inspired kings to increase their power, leading to the creation of a nation-state.Hundred Years’ War