Presentation on theme: "September 26, 2008 What were the four goals of Progressivism? Return Tests Camella Teoli Four goals Homework: Finish Sect. 1 Notes."— Presentation transcript:
September 26, 2008 What were the four goals of Progressivism? Return Tests Camella Teoli Four goals Homework: Finish Sect. 1 Notes
The Origins of Progressivism How would you feel if you had to work 10 to 12 hours a day, 6 days a week in a noisy, dangerous factory instead of going to school?
Camella Teoli (Italian Immigrant) 12 - working in textile mill machine tore off part of her scalp seven months in hospital & scarred Testified before congressional committee investigating labor conditions Strikers won 10% pay raises after nine weeks striking
As a Result: Reformers across country organized to address problems of industrialization
What is Progressivism? Effort to redress imbalances, or curb excesses, that had risen in the period of industrial growth and national expansion. A key to the success of progressive reform was the growth of a national media.
Who Wants Change? Journalists exposed unsafe working conditions of factories, including women and children Intellectuals questioned the dominant role of large corporations Reformers want to make government more responsive to people
The Four Goals: Protecting Social Welfare Promoting Moral Improvement Creating Economic Reform Fostering Efficiency
Protecting Social Welfare Working to soften harsh conditions of industrialization Social Gospel & Settlement House Movements continued
Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) opened libraries sponsored classes built swimming pools handball courts
Salvation Army fed the poor in soup kitchens, cared for children in nurseries, and sent “slum brigades” to instruct poor immigrants in middle-class values of hard work and temperance Women inspired by settlement houses and taking action
Florence Kelly Advocate of improving lives of women and children Chief inspector of factories for Illinois after she helped to win passage of the Illinois Factory Act of 1893 The act prohibited child labor & limited women’s working hours, became a model for other states
Promoting Moral Improvement Morality held key to improving lives of the poor Immigrants and poor city dwellers should uplift themselves by improving personal behavior Prohibition was key Feared alcohol undermining morals
Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) founded in 1874 and spearheaded the crusade for prohibition entered saloons, singing, praying, and urging the stop of selling alcohol
Transformed by Frances Willard became largest women’s group in the nation’s history opened kindergartens, visited prisoners, asylums, & worked for suffrage women in public roles (they used to justify giving women voting rights)
Anti-Saloon League & The Immigrants Some customs included liquor and saloons
Creating Economic Reform Economic panic of 1893 prompted Americans to question the capitalist system Americans beginning to embrace socialism
Eugene V. Debs helped organize the American Socialist Party in 1901 told of uneven balance among big business, government, and ordinary people under capitalism progressives weren’t socialists but saw truth in Deb’s criticisms
Big businesses received favorable treatment from government officials and politicians and could use its economic power to limit competition Journalists wrote of corrupt businesses and public life
Fostering Efficiency Many progressive leaders put faith in experts and scientific principles to make society and the workplace more efficient
Louis D. Brandeis focused on data documenting the high costs of long working hours for both individual and society (BRANDEIS BRIEF), this would become model for later reform litigation
Winslow Taylor used time & motion studies to improve efficiency by breaking manufacturing tasks into simpler parts
“Taylorism” Became management fad, as scientific management studies were used to speed each task
The Assembly Line sped up production, the system required people to work like machines caused high worker turnover, often due to injuries suffered by fatigued workers
To prevent strikes, Henry Ford reduced workday to eight hours and paid workers five dollars a day This attracted thousands of workers, but they exhausted themselves
Cleaning Up Local Government Reforming Local Government Natural disasters played role in prompted local reforms Led to adoption of city council members with a manager who ran city’s departments
Reform Mayors (Pingree and Johnson) Pingree – instituted fairer tax structure, lowered fares for public transportation, rooted out corruption, and set up a system for work relief for the unemployed. The city workers build schools, parks and a municipal lighting plant
Johnson – believed citizens should pay more active role in city government focused on dismissing corrupt and greedy private utilities and converting them to publicly owned enterprises.
“Fighting Bob” Robert M. La Follette – progressive Republican who led the way in regulating big business. taxed railroad property at same rate as other businesses set up commission to regulate rates forbade railroads to issue free passes to state officials
Protecting Working Children Reformers worked to end child labor Businesses hired them for unskilled jobs for lower wages and because their small hands made them more adept at handling small parts and tools
Children viewed as part of family economy Children more prone to accidents Developed more serious illnesses Suffered from stunted growth
National Child Labor Committee (1904) sent investigators to gather evidence of children working in harsh conditions. With pictures and proof, many joined arguing that child labor lowered wages for all.
Keating-Owen Act (1916) – prohibited the transportation across state lines of goods produced by child labor. Supreme Court declared the act unconstitutional due to interference with states’ right to regulate labor
Efforts to Limit Working Hours Louis B. Brandeis argued that poor working women were much more economically insecure than large corporations He convinced the court to uphold an Oregon law limiting women to ten-hour work day.
A similar brief by Brandeis persuaded the court to limit men’s working hours as well Progressive also succeeded in winning workers’ compensation to aid the families of workers who were hurt or killed on the job
William S. U’Ren prompted Oregon to adopt new voting regulations
Initiative – bill originated by the people rather than lawmakers (on the ballot) Referendum – vote on the initiative Recall – voters remove officials from office by forcing another election before the end of their term if enough voters asked for it.
1899, Minnesota passed first mandatory primary system in which voters (not political machines) chose candidates for public office
Direct Election of Senators Success of primary paved way for 17th amendment Seventeenth Amendment – ratified in 1913, made direct election of Senators the law of the land