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Chapter 9: The Progressive Era 1890- 1920 Section 1: The Origins of Progressivism.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9: The Progressive Era 1890- 1920 Section 1: The Origins of Progressivism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9: The Progressive Era Section 1: The Origins of Progressivism

2 I. The Origins of Progressivism A. Introduction 1. Progressivism. What is it? a political movement which sought to improve daily life. when? The Progressive Movement began in cities because of industrialization. For example, urban and rural poverty and blight child labor immigration political corruption public health poor working conditions monopolies

3 Four Goals of Progressivism Summery: Economic Reform Goal: Moral Reform Goal: Industrial Reform (fostering efficiency) Goal: Social Welfare Reform Goal: Examples:

4 Four Goals of Progressivism Summery: Middle Class Reformers addressed problems such as, unsafe working conditions, role of corporations, and making government more democratic. Economic Reform Goal: To question the uneven balance among big business, government, and ordinary people under capitalism. Moral Reform Goal: To uplift immigrants and the poor by improving personal behavior Industrial Reform (fostering efficiency) Goal: To improve society through science/technology Social Welfare Reform Goal: To soften some of the harsh conditions of industrialization Examples: Socialism Eugene V. Debs Muckrakers Ida M. Tarbell vs. Standard Oil Examples: YMCA Settlement Houses Salvation Army Florence Kelly Examples: Prohibition WCTU/Francis Willard Anti-Saloon League Examples: Brandeis Brief Frederick Winslow Taylor Scientific Management Henry Ford

5 B. The Four Goals 1. Social Welfare Reform. Goal: To soften some of the harsh conditions of industrialization How –Settlement Houses: Homes for the homeless/immigrants/poor –YMCA: libraries and sports for poor –Salvation Army: Soup kitchens Hull House Henry Street Settlement

6 Florence Kelly (September 12, 1859 – February 17, 1932) Fought against sweatshops and for the minimum wage, eight-hour workdays and children's rights.

7 2. Promoting Moral Improvement. Goal: To uplift immigrants and the poor by improving personal behavior How? –Prohibition: ban alcohol/ Carry Nation –WCTU: went into saloons and made scene –Kindergartens, visiting sick and prisons (November 25, June 9, 1911)

8 3. Creating Economic Reform. Goal: To question the uneven balance among big business, government, and ordinary people under capitalism. How? –Some people looked for a new economic systems. –Socialism: Eugene V. Debs »Said business had too much power –Government can be trusted more than individuals –Monopolies should be broken apart (November 5, 1855 – October 20, 1926)

9 Muckrakers: Journalists who wrote about corporate abuses »Ida Tarbell: Wrote The History of the Standard Oil Company in »Helped lead to the break up of Standard Oil. (November 5, 1857 – January 6, 1944) (July 8, 1839 – May 23, 1937) John D. Rockefeller

10 4. Industrial Reform (Foster Efficiency) Goal: To improve society through science/technology How? –Shortened hours, better conditions –Scientific Management »Assembly lines »Not always better for workers Sir Charles Spencer "Charlie" Chaplin Modern Times (1936)

11 Cleaning Up Local Government Reforming Local Government Reform Mayors Topics:

12 Cleaning Up Local Government Summery: Cities were in trouble. Poverty and political corruption were very common. Reforming Local Government Reform Mayors Topics: Commission Government (Galveston, Texas) Council-manager Government (Dayton, Ohio) People elected city council who in turn selected an Individual to “manage” the city. Topics: Hazen Pingree (Detroit) Fair taxes Transportation End corruption Help the unemployed Tom Johnson (Cleveland) Socialist Took over utilities Circus tent meetings

13 II. Government Reform A. City Government 1. Too much corruption 2. Reform Mayor a. Hazen Pingree: Detroit »Targeted corrupt utility companies, railroads and construction. »Built schools and parks Hazen Stuart Pingree (August 30, 1840 – June 18, 1901) Statue of Pingree in Grand Circus Park, Detroit. He gained national recognition through his "potato patch plan," a systematic use of vacant city land for gardens which would produce food for the city's poor.

14 II. Government Reform (cont.) A. City Government (cont.) 1. Tom Johnson (Cleveland) –Socialist –Fired corrupt officials –Took over utility companies –Circus tent meetings

15 Reform at the State Level Summery: Reform railroads, industry and other large businesses Protecting Working Children Efforts to Limit Working Hours Reforming Elections Reform Governors Direct Election of Senators

16 Reform at the State Level Summery: Protecting Working Children Efforts to Limit Working Hours Reforming Elections Reform Governors Direct Election of Senators Topics: Robert M. La Follette (Wisconsin) Railroad Topics: National Child Labor Committee Keating-Owen Act, 1916 Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional Topics: 17 th Amendment Topics: Muller v. Oregon, 1908 Bunting v. Oregon, 1917 Injury/death Benefits Topics: Secret Ballot Initiative Referendum Recall

17 B. State Government 1. Governor Robert Lafollette (Wisconsin) Targeted the RR. Why? To protect children –Too many children working –Earning less pay –Not going to school –Victims of accidents What would that mean for future? Used photography to show horrors Led to the Keatings-Owen Act (1916): stopped transportation of goods produced by children across state lines. (June 14, 1855– June 18, 1925)

18 C. Election Reforms –Promote Democracy and Citizen Action –Examples Initiative Secrete ballot Recall Referendum 17 th Amendment: Direct election of Senators

19 Child Labor Today


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