Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9: The Progressive Era"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 9: The Progressive Era 1890-1920 Section 1: The Origins of Progressivism
2 I. The Origins of Progressivism A. Introduction 1. Progressivism. What is it?a political movement which sought to improve daily life.when?2. The Progressive Movement began incities because of industrialization. For example,urban and rural poverty and blightchild laborimmigrationpolitical corruptionpublic healthpoor working conditionsmonopolies2
3 Industrial Reform (fostering efficiency) Economic Reform Social Welfare ReformGoal:Moral ReformGoal:Examples:Examples:Four Goals of ProgressivismSummery:Industrial Reform (fostering efficiency)Goal:Economic ReformGoal:Examples:Examples:
4 Industrial Reform (fostering efficiency) Social Welfare ReformGoal: To soften some of the harsh conditions of industrializationMoral ReformGoal: To uplift immigrants and the poor by improving personal behaviorExamples:ProhibitionWCTU/Francis WillardAnti-Saloon LeagueExamples:YMCASettlement HousesSalvation ArmyFlorence KellyFour Goals of ProgressivismSummery: Middle Class Reformers addressed problems such as, unsafe working conditions, role of corporations, and making government more democratic.Economic ReformGoal: To question the uneven balance among big business, government, and ordinary people under capitalism.Industrial Reform (fostering efficiency)Goal: To improve society through science/technologyExamples:Brandeis BriefFrederick Winslow TaylorScientific ManagementHenry FordExamples:SocialismEugene V. DebsMuckrakersIda M. Tarbell vs. Standard Oil
5 B. The Four Goals 1. Social Welfare Reform. Goal: To soften some of the harsh conditions of industrializationHowSettlement Houses: Homes for the homeless/immigrants/poorYMCA: libraries and sports for poorSalvation Army: Soup kitchensHenry Street SettlementHull House
6 Florence Kelly(September 12, 1859 – February 17, 1932)Fought against sweatshops and for the minimum wage, eight-hour workdays and children's rights.
7 2. Promoting Moral Improvement. Goal: To uplift immigrants and the poor by improving personal behaviorHow?Prohibition: ban alcohol/ Carry NationWCTU: went into saloons and made sceneKindergartens, visiting sick and prisons(November 25, June 9, 1911)
8 3. Creating Economic Reform. Goal: To question the uneven balance among big business, government, and ordinary people under capitalism.How?Some people looked for a new economic systems.Socialism: Eugene V. DebsSaid business had too much powerGovernment can be trusted more than individualsMonopolies should be broken apart(November 5, 1855 – October 20, 1926)
9 Muckrakers: Journalists who wrote about corporate abuses Ida Tarbell: Wrote The History of the Standard Oil Company in 1904.Helped lead to the break up of Standard Oil.(November 5, 1857 – January 6, 1944)John D. Rockefeller(July 8, 1839 – May 23, 1937)
10 4. Industrial Reform (Foster Efficiency) Goal: To improve society through science/technologyHow?Shortened hours, better conditionsScientific ManagementAssembly linesNot always better for workersSir Charles Spencer "Charlie" ChaplinModern Times (1936)
11 Cleaning Up Local Government Reforming Local GovernmentReform MayorsTopics:Topics:
12 Cleaning Up Local Government Summery: Cities were in trouble. Poverty and political corruption were very common.Reforming Local GovernmentReform MayorsTopics:Commission Government (Galveston, Texas)Council-manager Government (Dayton, Ohio)People elected city council who in turn selected an Individual to “manage” the city.Topics:Hazen Pingree (Detroit)Fair taxesTransportationEnd corruptionHelp the unemployedTom Johnson (Cleveland)SocialistTook over utilitiesCircus tent meetings
13 Statue of Pingree in Grand Circus Park, Detroit. II. Government ReformA. City Government1. Too much corruption2. Reform Mayora. Hazen Pingree: DetroitTargeted corrupt utility companies, railroads and construction.Built schools and parksHe gained national recognition through his "potato patch plan," a systematic use of vacant city land for gardens which would produce food for the city's poor.Hazen Stuart Pingree(August 30, 1840 – June 18, 1901)Statue of Pingree in Grand Circus Park, Detroit.
14 II. Government Reform (cont.) A. City Government (cont.) 1. Tom Johnson (Cleveland)SocialistFired corrupt officialsTook over utility companiesCircus tent meetings
15 Efforts to Limit Working Hours Reform GovernorsEfforts to Limit Working HoursReform at the State LevelSummery: Reform railroads, industry and other large businessesProtecting Working ChildrenReforming ElectionsDirect Election of Senators
16 Efforts to Limit Working Hours Reform GovernorsEfforts to Limit Working HoursTopics:Muller v. Oregon, 1908Bunting v. Oregon, 1917Injury/death BenefitsTopics:Robert M. La Follette (Wisconsin)RailroadReform at the State LevelSummery:Protecting Working ChildrenReforming ElectionsDirect Election of SenatorsTopics:Secret BallotInitiativeReferendumRecallTopics:National Child Labor CommitteeKeating-Owen Act, 1916Supreme Court ruled unconstitutionalTopics:17th Amendment
17 B. State Government 1. Governor Robert Lafollette (Wisconsin) Targeted the RR. Why?To protect childrenToo many children workingEarning less payNot going to schoolVictims of accidentsWhat would that mean for future?Used photography to show horrorsLed to the Keatings-Owen Act (1916): stopped transportation of goods produced by children across state lines.(June 14, 1855– June 18, 1925)
18 C. Election Reforms Promote Democracy and Citizen Action Examples InitiativeSecrete ballotRecallReferendum17th Amendment: Direct election of Senators
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