Presentation on theme: " These were great! Who wants to share? Did you see anything in the reading that supported your ideas or get any new ideas?"— Presentation transcript:
These were great! Who wants to share? Did you see anything in the reading that supported your ideas or get any new ideas?
Generally wanted to soften the harsh conditions from industrialization Social Gospel Movement and Settlement Houses › Help the poor through community centers, churches, and social services Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) › Opened libraries, sponsored classes, and built swimming pools and other recreational facilities to serve young men (and give them something positive to do) Salvation Army › Fed poor people, cared for children in nurseries, and sent out ‘slum brigades’ to instruct poor immigrants in middle-class values of hard work and temperance
Florence Kelley – worked to improve lives of women and children Chief inspector of factories for Illinois Pushed for Illinois Factory act of 1893 (prohibiting child labor and limiting women’s working hours)
Believed Morality (not the workplace) held the key to improving people’s lives... Wanted immigrants and other poor city dwellers to help themselves by improving personal behavior Prohibition (banning alcoholic beverages) Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) › sang and prayed in saloons, urging them to stop selling alcohol › Frances Willard expanded it nationally AND began opening kindergartens for immigrants, visiting inmates in prisons and asylums, and working for suffrage Anti-Saloon League › Pushed to close saloons... But created conflict with immigrants because Saloons played many roles within community (cashed paychecks, served meals, community gathering place, etc)
Economic crisis led some to question the US’s capitalist economic system... turning to socialism (such as labor leader Eugene Debs)
Muckrakers – Journalists who wrote about the corrupt side of business and public life
Put their faith in experts and scientific principles to make society and the workplace more efficient Documented high costs of long working hours for both individual and society Time and motion studies to improve efficiency by breaking manufacturing tasks into simpler parts... Scientific Management
A response to political bosses and the corruption surrounding them City commission of experts (Hurricane in Galveston) Council/Manager – people elect a city council to make laws who appoint a manager (with training and experience in public administration rather than necessarily politics) Mayors who addressed changes w/o reorganizing government: › Fairer tax structures › Lower fairs on public transit › Rooted out corruption › Work relief system for unemployed › City workers built schools, parks, etc › Dismissing corrupt and greedy private owners of utilities and converting to publically owned Wanted citizens to play more active role in city government
Many states passed laws to regulate railroads, mines, mills, telephone companies and other large businesses Reform Governors › Robert LaFollette – major target: Railroads, taxed them at same rate as other businesses, forbid issuing free passes to state officials, etc Protecting Working Children › Worked to protect workers and end child labor (success on some level in nearly every state) › Keating-Owen Act – forbid transport of goods across state lines that had been produced by child labor (declared constitutional) Limiting Working Hours › Reduce hours for women (sometimes men too) › Workers compensation (to help families of those injured or killed on the job)
Reforming Elections › Secret Ballot › Initiative – bill originated by the people (rather than legislature) › Referendum – vote (by the PEOPLE) on an Initiative › Recall – enabled voters to remove a public official from elected position by forcing them to face another election if enough voters requested it › State primary systems started (allowing people instead of political machines to choose candidates) Direct Election of Senators › 17 th Amendment – people vote for their US Senators (instead of state legislatures choosing them)
In general, Americans got more of a voice in their government and more women were drawn into public life... Increasing focus on women’s voting rights
Farm women › Hadn’t changed much in last century – everything from household chores to raising livestock and helping in fields Women in Industry › 1900 – 20% of women had jobs (25% of those in manufacturing › MANY in garment industries (typically poorest paying and least skilled jobs in the industry) › Filling new jobs in offices, stores, and classrooms › New business schools opened for bookkeepers, stenographers, typists, etc Domestic Workers › Typically without formal education or industrial skills › Servants, cooks, laundresses, maids
Women in Higher Education › Women’s college became more popular in late 1800s... Great education but still expected to fulfill traditional domestic roles › Nearly half of college educated women never married, retaining independence and contributing to social reforms Women and Reform › Workplace reform, housing reform, educational improvement, and food and drug laws › NACW (National Association of Colored Women) managed nurseries, reading rooms, and kindergartens › Suffrage – Susan B Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, NAWSA, Lucy Stone, and Julia Ward Howe TONs of conflict when African Americans granted vote and NOT women...
Convince STATE legislatures to grant women the right to vote Pursued court cases to test the 14 th Amendment Pushed for a national constitutional amendment to grant women the vote
Finally saw success as a result of: › Increased activism of local groups › Use of bold new strategies to build enthusiasm for the movement › Rebirth of the national movement under Carrie Chapman Catt Catt’s strategies in national movement: Painstaking organization Close ties between local, state, and natioanl workers Establishing a wide base of support Cautious lobbying Gracious ladylike behavior. During WWI: