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 These were great! Who wants to share?  Did you see anything in the reading that supported your ideas or get any new ideas?

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Presentation on theme: " These were great! Who wants to share?  Did you see anything in the reading that supported your ideas or get any new ideas?"— Presentation transcript:

1  These were great! Who wants to share?  Did you see anything in the reading that supported your ideas or get any new ideas?


3 Generally wanted to soften the harsh conditions from industrialization  Social Gospel Movement and Settlement Houses › Help the poor through community centers, churches, and social services  Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) › Opened libraries, sponsored classes, and built swimming pools and other recreational facilities to serve young men (and give them something positive to do)  Salvation Army › Fed poor people, cared for children in nurseries, and sent out ‘slum brigades’ to instruct poor immigrants in middle-class values of hard work and temperance

4 Florence Kelley –  worked to improve lives of women and children  Chief inspector of factories for Illinois  Pushed for Illinois Factory act of 1893 (prohibiting child labor and limiting women’s working hours)

5 Believed Morality (not the workplace) held the key to improving people’s lives... Wanted immigrants and other poor city dwellers to help themselves by improving personal behavior  Prohibition (banning alcoholic beverages)  Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) › sang and prayed in saloons, urging them to stop selling alcohol › Frances Willard expanded it nationally AND began opening kindergartens for immigrants, visiting inmates in prisons and asylums, and working for suffrage  Anti-Saloon League › Pushed to close saloons... But created conflict with immigrants because Saloons played many roles within community (cashed paychecks, served meals, community gathering place, etc)

6 Economic crisis led some to question the US’s capitalist economic system... turning to socialism (such as labor leader Eugene Debs)

7  Muckrakers – Journalists who wrote about the corrupt side of business and public life

8 Put their faith in experts and scientific principles to make society and the workplace more efficient  Documented high costs of long working hours for both individual and society  Time and motion studies to improve efficiency by breaking manufacturing tasks into simpler parts... Scientific Management

9 A response to political bosses and the corruption surrounding them  City commission of experts (Hurricane in Galveston)  Council/Manager – people elect a city council to make laws who appoint a manager (with training and experience in public administration rather than necessarily politics)  Mayors who addressed changes w/o reorganizing government: › Fairer tax structures › Lower fairs on public transit › Rooted out corruption › Work relief system for unemployed › City workers built schools, parks, etc › Dismissing corrupt and greedy private owners of utilities and converting to publically owned  Wanted citizens to play more active role in city government

10 Many states passed laws to regulate railroads, mines, mills, telephone companies and other large businesses  Reform Governors › Robert LaFollette – major target: Railroads, taxed them at same rate as other businesses, forbid issuing free passes to state officials, etc  Protecting Working Children › Worked to protect workers and end child labor (success on some level in nearly every state) › Keating-Owen Act – forbid transport of goods across state lines that had been produced by child labor (declared constitutional)  Limiting Working Hours › Reduce hours for women (sometimes men too) › Workers compensation (to help families of those injured or killed on the job)

11  Reforming Elections › Secret Ballot › Initiative – bill originated by the people (rather than legislature) › Referendum – vote (by the PEOPLE) on an Initiative › Recall – enabled voters to remove a public official from elected position by forcing them to face another election if enough voters requested it › State primary systems started (allowing people instead of political machines to choose candidates)  Direct Election of Senators › 17 th Amendment – people vote for their US Senators (instead of state legislatures choosing them)

12 In general, Americans got more of a voice in their government and more women were drawn into public life... Increasing focus on women’s voting rights


14  Farm women › Hadn’t changed much in last century – everything from household chores to raising livestock and helping in fields  Women in Industry › 1900 – 20% of women had jobs (25% of those in manufacturing › MANY in garment industries (typically poorest paying and least skilled jobs in the industry) › Filling new jobs in offices, stores, and classrooms › New business schools opened for bookkeepers, stenographers, typists, etc  Domestic Workers › Typically without formal education or industrial skills › Servants, cooks, laundresses, maids

15  Women in Higher Education › Women’s college became more popular in late 1800s... Great education but still expected to fulfill traditional domestic roles › Nearly half of college educated women never married, retaining independence and contributing to social reforms  Women and Reform › Workplace reform, housing reform, educational improvement, and food and drug laws › NACW (National Association of Colored Women) managed nurseries, reading rooms, and kindergartens › Suffrage –  Susan B Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, NAWSA, Lucy Stone, and Julia Ward Howe  TONs of conflict when African Americans granted vote and NOT women...

16  Convince STATE legislatures to grant women the right to vote  Pursued court cases to test the 14 th Amendment  Pushed for a national constitutional amendment to grant women the vote

17 Finally saw success as a result of: › Increased activism of local groups › Use of bold new strategies to build enthusiasm for the movement › Rebirth of the national movement under Carrie Chapman Catt Catt’s strategies in national movement:  Painstaking organization  Close ties between local, state, and natioanl workers  Establishing a wide base of support  Cautious lobbying  Gracious ladylike behavior. During WWI: 



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