Presentation on theme: "Digital Photography Session #2 Summer Workshop 2013 Rose Memorial Library Stony Point NY Slide 1 Bill Greenlee & Pam Grafstein."— Presentation transcript:
Digital Photography Session #2 Summer Workshop 2013 Rose Memorial Library Stony Point NY Slide 1 Bill Greenlee & Pam Grafstein
Agenda Session #2 Follow-up questions from Session #1 Review of Session #1 HW assignment Using the Histogram to Get the Correct Exposure Pop-up Camera Flash – Promise and Pitfalls Understanding red-eye Benefits of a Dedicated Flash Unit Basic Flash Tips Break (10 min) Qualities of Light How Handle Different Shooting Situations – Indoor vs. Outdoor – Nature – Landscape/Architecture – Macro/Close-up – Portraits – Action/Sports – Night Photography – Special Effects Handouts – How Handle Different Shooting Situations Q& A Session Slide 2
Elements of a High Quality Image ImpactImpact – Initial reaction, emotional response CreativityCreativity – Obvious contribution of maker to image message/thought StyleStyle – “Signature” elements of image characteristic of maker’s vision CompositionComposition – Placement and relationship of visual elements in image Presentation – Vehicle or environment chosen to display image Center of InterestCenter of Interest – Point or points in image which attract viewer’s eye LightingLighting – Maker’s use of natural or artificial to enhance image Subject Matter – Foundation for the visual story being told Color BalanceColor Balance – Harmony of color/tonality to effectively support image Technical ExcellenceTechnical Excellence – Maker’s skill/knowledge of equipment, environment TechniqueTechnique – Collective approach creating the final image Story TellingStory Telling – Ability to strongly evoke viewer’s imagination or association
The Histogram The range of brightness that can be recognized by a camera is divided into 256 levels– from 0, which represents absolute black, to 255, which represents absolute white. Slide 4 Image: The Luminous Landscape, Understanding Histograms
The Histogram The information contained in the histogram is a visual representation of the brightness levels (tonal values) recorded in an image Image: Cambridge in Colour, Camera Histograms: Tones and Contrast
The Histogram is your Friend! A histogram is a great tool for determining if any areas of a photograph are overexposed (“blown out” ) or underexposed. Any part of the histogram up against the edge indicates that “clipping” has occurred, or that some of the detail has been lost. Histogram indicating overexposure Histogram indicating underexposure Image: Michael Fulks, The Histogram Image: My Photography Lesson, Exposure Histogram
Histogram Examples Article-Understanding Your Digital Cameras Histogram
More Histogram Examples gavtrain.blogspot.com Quick Guide to reading a histogram
Using a Histogram While Shooting Underexposure (histogram is clipped on the left) Overexposure (histogram is clipped on the right) To increase light: Decrease shutter speed Increase aperture (use lower f-stop) Use higher ISO Use flash To decrease light: Increase shutter speed Reduce aperture, or (use a higher f-stop) Use lower ISO
Using a Histogram While Shooting If you plan to do post-processing: “Shoot to the right” – get your histogram as close to the right without clipping – Bright areas contain more information than shadows – Detail can be recovered from shadow areas, but in blown-out bright areas, the detail is lost forever.
Pop-up Camera Flash Promises Increases amount of light to allow faster shutter speed Fill flash can be used to preserve details in shadow areas, eliminating clipping on the left of your histogram. Pitfalls Output is small – only effective for feet Fixed position directs light squarely at subject, so there is no control over where shadows will appear Close proximity of the flash and lens can cause red-eye
Understanding Red-eye "Red eye" happens when the flash is too close to the camera lens. The light from the flash reflects off of the vascular choroid, which lies behind and nourishes the retina. Adapted from stsite.com STsite's Guide to Still Photography Camera Retina Choroid Flash goes directly into the pupil Angle is too small
Benefits of a Dedicated Flash Unit More powerful = greater range Flash unit is further away from the lens, decreasing the likelihood of red-eye Flash can be tilted, rotated or held away from the camera to change the direction of its effect
Basic Flash Tips Shoot shiny surfaces at an angle to avoid reflection of flash Flash straight-onFlash at an angle to glass PG
Basic Flash Tips Diffuse with paper or cloth (waxed paper works well!) to reduce the harshness of flash Use a black background, or move subject away from background to eliminate unflattering rear shadows
LIGHT Why quality is just as important as quantity!
Qualities of Light Quantity (as controlled by ISO, aperture, shutter speed) Intensity (use a diffuser to “soften” light) Color temperature Angle/Direction
Color Temperature Each light source has its own individual color, or ‘color temperature’, which varies from red to blue. Photography EssentialsPhotography Essentials White Balance and Color Temperature
Angle/Direction Time of day s important! Early morning and late afternoon are best! – Avoid the harsh shadows created by overhead midday sunlight. – Sunlight coming in at a lower angle has a warmer color (blues get filtered out). “Magic” or “Golden” Use creatively: —Silhouettes —Backlighting
How to Handle Different Shooting Situations Indoor vs. Outdoor Nature Landscape/Architecture Macro/Close-up Portraits Action/Sports Night Photography Special Effects
Outdoor vs. Indoor Shooting Consider the angle/direction of light Sunlight, tungsten and fluorescent lighting all have different color temperatures – set camera white balance accordingly. “Sunlight” “Incandescent” Images: WIRED How–to Wiki
Nature Photography Subject should be captivating – color, pattern, a story Make sure the eyes of animals are in focus Get down to the level of your subject. Blur the background to remove distraction – Use a large aperture (for shallow depth of field) or make sure background is not close Be patient, and don’t be afraid to get dirty!
Nature Photography Pattern Keep those eyes sharp! A story
Landscape/Cityscape Photography Use smaller aperture to increase depth of field Make sure there is a point of interest--use lines/patterns to your advantage Clouds add interest to the sky above a landscape/cityscape (Use a polarizer to make the sky bluer so your clouds “pop.”) Include some foreground to “anchor” your image The horizon should be horizontal, and most buildings should be vertically straight
Landscape Photography Clouds add interest to the sky Lines/patterns can create a center of interest
Landscape Photography Include some foreground to add dimension, and “anchor” your image
Macro/Close-up Photography Position your camera so the subject is parallel to the focal plane/sensor. A small aperture will provide the maximum depth of field. Use a macro lens for true 1:1 ratio of subject size to its size represented on the sensor. Use a tripod!
Macro/Close-up Photography Small aperture for maximum depth of field
Portraits Use fill flash to soften shadows under eyes, nose, etc. Eyes need to be in focus! Be careful to focus on your subject(s) and not just the background Engage your subject to make a connection.
Portraits No flash With fill flash Image: wikipedia
Portraits This is where your camera wants to focus. This is where you want the focus to be. Use your focus lock (press the shutter button down halfway) to focus on your subject, then recompose and shoot! For autofocus users:
Action/Sports Photography Use a fast shutter speed and/or flash to freeze action Use a slower shutter speed and use “panning” to get a sharp subject, but pleasingly blurred background Anticipate where the action will be, and choose your location accordingly
Action/Sports Photography Panning Freeze Action Image: wikipedia
Night Photography Stabilize your camera –use a tripod or any available supports (tables, rocks, columns, etc.) Long exposure time is necessary to capture enough light Use high ISO (be aware of noise) Use slow shutter speed for trailing lights effect
Night Photography Slow shutter speed
Special Effects Zoom during exposure to create the illusion of movement. Use slow shutter speed for “creative blur” Intentionally shake the camera during exposure for interesting effects
Special Effects Image:wikipedia Zoom Effect Intentional Camera Shake Image:wikipedia
Credits Graphics and Text Not Credited – Bill Greenlee RPC – Pam Grafstein RPC – Microsoft Clip Art (Public Domain) Other Graphics Marked as – Wikipedia.com – Peter Grafstein Image: Wikipedia PG