Sexually Transmitted Illnesses An epidemic: Many people are infected at a given time and place 19 million new cases are reported each year 3 million – under 20
Reasons for STI Epidemic 1.Many people begin to have sex at a young age and tend to have multiple partners 2.Many people who are active do not take precautions against infections.
Reasons (cont) 3. Some people who become infected do not seek immediate medical treatment or do not recognize the symptoms.
Avoiding STI’s 1. Abstinence - means not having any type of sexual intercourse until you are ready to commit yourself to a long term, caring relationship – marriage.
Avoiding (cont) 2. Avoid Drug Abuse using illegal drugs is a risk factor. Drugs impairs the ability to think clearly Blood to blood contact
Avoiding (cont) 3. Sexual Fidelity - is practiced when both partners in a caring, committed relationship agree to have sex only with each other. Choose partners wisely
4. Precautions reduces the risk of STI’s but does not eliminate the risk. People who participate in high risk behaviors should get medical checkups every 6 months. Avoiding (cont)
CHLAMYDIA - bacterial infection WOMEN : 80% of show no symptoms, Symptoms occur 1 to 3 weeks after infection yellowish discharge, pain or burning sensation during urination
Chlamydia (cont.) Pelvic Inflammatory Disorder (PID) serious infection of the reproductive organs abnormal vaginal bleeding, fever, pain Results in infertility Can be cured with antibiotics except penicillin
Chlamydia (cont) 1 in 10 sexually active adolescent girls get it Pregnant women pass the infection to child: lungs, eyes
Chlamydia (cont.) MEN: 25% show no symptoms Symptoms: 1 to 3 weeks after infection symptoms are painful & frequent urination watery or white discharge from penis
Chlamydia (cont.) Untreated: acute epididymitis - inflammation of the sperm duct Nongonococcal Urethritis – NGU inflammation of the Urethra
Chlamydia (cont.) Both women and men can be Cured with antibiotics, except penicillin
SYPHILIS - bacterial infection 1 st phase: Primary 1 to 12 weeks after infection Painless sore on the genitals – chancre Will disappear 4 to 10 weeks, leaves scar Can be cured with antibiotics Usually one shot dose
Syphilis (cont) 2 nd phase: Secondary Last 2 to 6 weeks A rash, non-itchy on the body Flu like symptoms, fever, headache, throat infection Symptoms will disappear Can be cured
Syphilis (cont.) 3 rd phase: tertiary Occurs month or years later Symptoms disappear, bacteria attacks internal parts Can be treated in this stage, damage permanent 4 th phase: latent Can affect brain, heart, nervous system Can result in permanent damage for organs and death
GONORRHEA - bacterial infection MEN : all show symptoms Symptoms appear within 2 to 7 days after infection Symptoms are inflammation of the urethra (NGU) Watery discharge, painful burning sensation during urination
Gonorrhea (cont.) WOMEN: 85% of show no symptoms symptoms: urgent need to urinate, painful doctor’s exam is essential untreated: PID, infertility Can be cured
CHANCROID- bacterial infection Symptoms: deep chancre sore on the genitals that may have a gray coating. Sore is very infectious can be treated with antibiotics
BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS Overgrowth of certain harmful bacteria in the vagina Symptoms: white/gray discharge – Strong odor – Burning sensation – Itching around the outside of the vagina – PID
Bacterial vaginosis (cont.) Caused by an imbalance of ph levels in the vagina Having new sex partner or multiple sex partners Can be sexually transmitted Treatment: antibiotics, not penicillin
CANDIDIASIS - fungus infection (Candida) Also known as Vaginal Yeast Infection occurs as a result of changes in the ph levels of the vagina and the destruction of natural bacteria in the area
Candidiasis (cont) WOMEN: symptoms white, clumpy discharge with excessive itching vaginal irritation, some bleeding Abnormal odor can be cured with medication
Candidiasis (cont) MEN: symptoms may have no symptoms Some may have itchy rash on the penis or around foreskin
TRICHOMONIASIS – protozoan infection Can be an infection in the genitals and urinary tract MEN: symptoms itching, clear discharge, painful urination inflammation of the urethra WOMEN: symptoms itching & burning in the vagina smelly, greenish- yellowish discharge Vaginitis - vaginal inflammation can be cured
PUBIC LICE & SCABIES Infestation of tiny insects, parasites Infest the pubic hair and other body hair through direct contact or contaminated clothing Symptoms: itching, sometimes a rash
Pubic lice (cont) Can be killed with medicated shampoos or ointments Need to wash clothing in hot water, dried in a hot dryer & ironed to kill remaining eggs
HEPATITIS B and C- viral infection Causes the liver to become inflamed. Symptoms: 2 to 6 months after infection Early symptoms: fever, fatigue & loss of appetite
Hepatitis B & C (cont) Develop Jaundice - yellow eyes and skin Develop Cirrhosis - scar tissue replaces normal liver tissue Liver Cancer Found in blood, saliva, and semen
Hepatitis B & C (cont) This virus can survive on objects for long periods of time Sharing razors, eating utensils, toothbrush is not recommended 10% of infected people may become long-term carriers.
HERPES II - viral infection 1 in 5 sexually active person Primary episode: symptoms appear 2 to 10 days after infection Itching, burning or tenderness on the genitals
Herpes II - symptoms (cont) Outbreak of painful blisters around the genitals, sometimes the mouth. Blisters rupture leaving painful sores that are covered with pus- like fluid Heal within 2 to 3 weeks
Herpes II (cont) The virus will remain in the nerve roots, causing outbreaks from time to time Symptoms are less painful and less severe as time passes Most contagious with lesions/blisters
Herpes II – cont. n Condoms can not always prevent of spread of herpes - blisters can be on other parts of the body that is not covered by it. n Can be treated -- IT IS NOT CURABLE
GENITAL WARTS – viral infection HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS (HPV) 20 million Americans (15 to 49 years old), 15% of the population are infected Over 100 different types of HPV Symptoms will appear 3 to 6 months after exposure. Warts will appear in the genitals is spread by direct skin to skin contact, some warts are difficult to see in the vagina rarely causes pain
Genital warts Need physical exam to detect warts, may need a Biopsy - removal of small piece of tissue linked to cervical cancer. Symptoms can be treated Some HPV can resolve without treatment.
HPV - continue New vaccine - Gardviasis Helps prevents cervical cancer in 4 different HPV infections HPV 16 and 18 – responsible for 70% of cervical cancer HPV 6 and 11 – responsible for 90% of genital warts.