Gymnosperms Four major phyla of living gymnosperms: ( a)Cycads: Cycadophyta Sago palm Cone-bearing palm like tropical dinosaur food ?
Gymnosperms b)Ginkgos: Ginkgophyta One living species, Ginkgo biloba Seed coat stinks Polluted areas 1945 atom bomb The ginkgo is a living fossil, recognizably similar to fossils dating back 270 million years.
Gymnosperms (c) Gnetophytes: Gnetophyta Shrubs, trees, or vines the group is a small one, consisting of three families, each with one genus, totaling 68 species Ephedra *ephedrine
Gymnosperms (D)Conifers Coniferophyta largest group of gymnosperms pines, hemlock, spruce, evergreen conifers leaves stay all season sap ----antifreeze first real development of wood dead transport tissue
Angiosperms FLOWERS are the exclusive reproductive organ of angiosperms “The earth laughs in flowers ” Ralph Waldo Emerson
What Features Distinguish the Angiosperms? Angiosperm: “enclosed seed”
Angiosperms Male reproductive structures Stamen Anther Filament bear microsporangia - sperm ( pollen) Female reproductive structures Carpel Stigma, style, and ovary bear megasporangia -egg (one or more carpel make up a pistil)
Angiosperm Pollen B - Dandelion (Taraxacum sp.) Transmission electron microscopy F - Pine (Pinus sylvestis): Light microscopy G - Mixed pollen grains (bright field light microscopy, stained)
Anigosperms Flowers may have contributed to the enormous success of angiosperms. The flowers attract a pollinators which carry pollen to other individuals of the same species
Angiosperms Attracted to sweet smells Need landing platform Attracted to sweet smells Need landing platform Attracted to strong smells Can hover; nocturnal Attracted to strong smells Can hover; nocturnal Can hover Prefer red color Can hover Prefer red color Need bigger landing platform Like bright colors Need bigger landing platform Like bright colors
Angiosperms Double fertilization Sperm A leads to the formation of a Seed Sperm B leads to the formation of an endosperm (a nutritive tissue within the seed that feeds the developing plant embryo)