7Four major phyla of living gymnosperms: (a)Cycads: CycadophytaSago palmCone-bearingpalm liketropicaldinosaur food ?
8Gymnospermsb)Ginkgos: GinkgophytaOne living species, Ginkgo bilobaSeed coat stinksPolluted areas1945 atom bombThe ginkgo is a living fossil, recognizably similar to fossils dating back 270 million years.
9Ephedra *ephedrine Gymnosperms (c) Gnetophytes: Gnetophyta Shrubs , trees, or vinesthe group is a small one, consisting of three families, each with one genus, totaling 68 speciesEphedra *ephedrine
10(D)Conifers Coniferophyta Gymnosperms(D)Conifers Coniferophytalargest group of gymnospermspines, hemlock, spruce, evergreen conifersleaves stay all seasonsap ----antifreezefirst real development of wooddead transport tissue
15FLOWERS are the exclusive reproductive organ of angiosperms “The earth laughs in flowers” Ralph Waldo Emerson
16What Features Distinguish the Angiosperms? Angiosperm: “enclosed seed”
17Angiosperms Female reproductive structures Carpel StamenAntherFilamentbear microsporangia - sperm ( pollen)Female reproductive structuresCarpelStigma, style, and ovarybear megasporangia -egg(one or more carpel make up a pistil)
18AngiospermPollenB - Dandelion (Taraxacum sp.) Transmission electron microscopyF Pine (Pinus sylvestis): Light microscopyG Mixed pollen grains (bright field light microscopy, stained)
19AnigospermsFlowers may have contributed to the enormous success of angiosperms.The flowers attract a pollinators which carry pollen to other individuals of the same species
20Angiosperms Attracted to sweet smells Need landing platform Can hover Need bigger landing platformLike bright colorsAttracted to strong smellsCan hover; nocturnalCan hoverPrefer red color
21Angiosperms Double fertilization Sperm A leads to the formation of a SeedSperm B leads to the formation of an endosperm(a nutritive tissue within the seed that feeds the developing plant embryo)