2Types of Plants with Seeds Gymnosperms are trees and shrubs that produce seeds in cones or fleshy structures on stems.Examples are pine, spruce, fir and ginkgo.Angiosperms produce their seeds within fruit.Examples are peach trees, grasses, oaks, roses, and buttercups.
3Characteristics of Seed Plants They produce seeds which are nourished and protected.Gametophytes are found living on and protected by the reproductive structures of the sporophyte.Male gametophytes travel by wind or animals and are called pollen.They still have a two part life cycle and can live in most places.
4What’s So Great about Seeds? A seed (which develops after fertilization) is made up of: a young sporophyte, stored food, and a tough seed coat.The young plant is nourished by the stored food until it can produce its own.In contrast, spores must develop where it can begin photosynthesis as soon as it begins to grow.
5Gymnosperms Seeds of gymnosperms are not enclosed in a fruit. There are four groups of gymnosperms: conifers, ginkgoes, cycads and gnetophytes.Conifers are pines, spruces and firs.Ginkgoes are just the ginkgo tree.Cycads are tropical plants with cones.Gnetophytes are shrubs in dry areas.
6Gymnosperm life cycleGymnosperms that use cones to carry seeds produce both male and female cones.The male gametophyte is pollen and the female is an egg.Wind carries pollen from the male cone to the female cone on the same plant or different plants (called pollination).
7The egg is fertilized when the pollen and egg unite. It develops into a seed in the female cone.Once it is mature, it drops to the ground to germinate and grow into a tree.We use conifers for wood, paper, soap, paint and ink
9AngiospermsAngiosperms are flowering plants and are the most abundant plants today.There are over 235,000 species.They have a vascular system.All angiosperms have flowers and produce fruits.
10What are Flowers For? Flowers help angiosperms reproduce. Some need wind for pollination and some rely on animals to spread pollen for them.
11What are Fruits For?Fruits help to ensure that seeds survive as they are transported to areas where new plants can grow.Fruits surround and protect seeds.Some fruits have structures that help the wind carry them away.Some fruits have structures that attract animals to eat the fruit or to attach to animals.
12Monocots and Dicots Angiosperms have two classes: monocots and dicots. The difference is in the number of cotyledon in their seeds.A cotyledon is a seed leaf found inside the seed.Monocots have one, dicots have two.Monocots are grasses, orchids, onions, and palms.Dicots are roses, cacti, sunflowers, and peas.
14The Importance of Angiosperms They provide food for animals.Humans depend on flowering plants and use them as major food crops like corn, wheat and rice.Some are used as furniture and toys.Some produce cotton for clothes or ropes.Some are even used as medicines and perfume oils.