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Manifest Destiny in the Forties

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1 Manifest Destiny in the Forties

2 William Henry Harrison
Inaugurated as the ninth president in 1841 Inaugural address shows his inexperience

3 Clay and Webster figured to control the president

4 April 4, 1841 President Harrison dies of pneumonia

5 President John Tyler

6 President John Tyler Tyler was anti-Jackson - strong states-righter.

7 Clay and Webster were pro-bank, pro-tariff, pro-internal improvements.
Tyler’s Democratic beliefs were at odds with most Whigs.

8 Whig problems with Tyler
Clay passes a Fiscal Bank bill - does not compromise with Tyler. Tyler vetoes Fiscal Bank and subsequent Fiscal Corporation Bill.

9 Whigs burn Tyler in effigy - seek to impeach him - formally kick him out of the Whig Party.
His entire cabinet resigns (except Daniel Webster, who as Secretary of State is negotiating with Britain).

10 Tyler vetoes a tariff bill that calls for distribution of land sales revenues - signs tariff bill that is mildly protective.

11 Problems with England War of words between British and Americans.
Americans defaulted on British loans during the depression following the Panic of 1837.

12 Canadian rebellion and Caroline Affair increased tensions,
Canadian citizen is indicted for murder. British officials offer asylum to rebel slaves on the American ship Creole.

13 Canadian attempts to build a road to Nova Scotia leads to “Aroostook War” between lumber jacks in Maine. Webster - Ashburton agreement split the difference of the land in dispute.

14 The Lone Star Republic fades away.
Texas President Lamar negotiates with Britain and France for protection.

15 British and French schemes for Texas made the area a major issue in the 1844 election.

16 1844 Election Martin Van Buren opposes Texas.

17 Andrew Jackson supports James K. Polk.

18 Clay also opposes Texas gets Whig nomination.
Democrats nominate Polk - first “Dark Horse” candidate.

19 Democrats campaign for Texas and “fifty-four forty or fight.”
To gain all of Oregon territory.

20 Polk wins for Texas, California and Oregon by 170 to 105 electoral votes.

21 Annexation of Texas Tyler proposes and Congress passes annexation resolution - to bypass 2/3rds majority needed for treaty.

22 Zachary Taylor is dispatched to the Rio Grande to protect Texas.
Texas votes for Annexation - never was a territory.

23 President James K. Polk

24 President James K. Polk Developed a four point program and achieved it in four years. Lower the tariff, restore the independent treasury, get Oregon and California. His policies are tied to the idea of “Manifest Destiny.”

25 Manifest Destiny

26 Walker Tariff Secretary of the Treasury Robert Walker created a revenue tariff that reduced tariffs from 32 to 25 percent. Clay’ Whig supporters denounced the new tariff, but boom times made it successful.

27 Independent Treasury Polk gets congress to restore the independent treasury that had been dropped by the Whigs in 1841. It will remain in effect until the creation of the Federal Reserve System in 1912.

28 Oregon Compromise Polk had no intention of holding out for 54º 40’ line. He proposed the old compromise line of 49º, but Britain refused.

29 Britain eventually agreed to give in with out a fight and the line was set at 49º.

30 The War with Mexico Land to the south of the Nueces River was disputed between Texas and Mexico.

31 Mexico broke off diplomatic relations with the US when the United States accepted Texan claims to the Rio Grande as the southern border.

32 Slidell Mission Polk sends John Slidell to Mexico City offering to buy California and New Mexico for $25 million. The Mexican government refused to even hear the “insulting” proposition.

33 “Old Rough and Ready” General Zachary Taylor and 4,000 troops move to the Rio Grande valley near Matamoros. 8,000 Mexican troops gathered south of the Rio Grande.

34 General Zachary Taylor

35 First Blood April 25, ,600 Mexican troops crossed the river and attacked 60 US cavalry. 16 American casualties. May 8, Taylor defeats the Mexican force at Palo Alto.


37 War News From Mexico by Richard Woodville

38 War Resolution Congress declared war on Mexico – anti-slavery Northerners declared the war was for the expansion of slavery.

39 War Protests                                                                                                       Henry David Thoreau refused to pay his taxes until the war was over - wrote “Civil Disobedience” to justify his actions.

40 “Under a government which imprisons any unjustly, the true place for a just man is also in a prison.”

41 The Spot Resolutions Whig Congressman Abe Lincoln of Illinois introduced a resolution seeking to determine the exact “spot” that American blood had been spilt on American soil.

42 The War with Mexico The war was fought on three fronts - California, New Mexico and in Mexico.


44 Captain John C. Fremont in California with a few dozen well-armed men -- overthrew the Mexican government and declared the California Bear Flag Republic. The Pathfinder

45 The Bear Flag Republic

46 General Stephen Kearney leads a force from Ft
General Stephen Kearney leads a force from Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas to Santa Fe, New Mexico and then on to California.

47 General Zachary Taylor - “Old Rough and Ready” - invaded Mexico from Texas and won a close victory against Santa Anna at Buena Vista.



50 General Winfield Scott - “Old Fuss and Feathers” - landed with 10,000 troops at Veracruz, Mexico and marched through the mountains, lakes and swamps to reach Mexico City.

51 General Winfield Scott


53 The Capital fell in hand-to-hand street fighting on September 14, 1847.

54 Battle of Chapultepec

55 13,000 Americans lost their lives (11,000 by disease) and over $100 million was spent.
Many of the battlefield officers went on to be generals in the Civil War.

56 February 2, 1848 -- The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo formally ended the war.
The US gained California, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado and Wyoming.

57 Mexico gave up its claim to Texas and received $15 million in compensation.


59 U.S. Territorial Expansion

60 U.S. Territorial Expansion

61 The Gadsden Purchase In 1853 the US purchased a disputed territory south of the Gila River for $10 million called the Gadsden Purchase.

62 The war soured relations with Latin America and brought back the slavery issue.

63 The Wilmot Proviso During the Mexican War the House passed a measure known as the Wilmot Proviso - declaring slavery outlawed in all territory that might be acquired during the war.

64 The Senate refused to pass the measure but the issue of slavery had again been broached.


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