Presentation on theme: "Ch. 17 PPT Manifest Destiny and the U.S. Mexican War."— Presentation transcript:
Ch. 17 PPT Manifest Destiny and the U.S. Mexican War
President Harrison-Whig VP Tyler Whig President William Henry Harrison dies in 1841, 4 weeks into office–John Tyler = Pres. Pres. Tyler switched from Democrat to Whig, BUT still held Democrat views. Whig Congress (Clay) put thru a bill for a “Fiscal Bank” (new bank of the U.S.), Pres Tyler vetoes it. Whig Congress tries again for a “Fiscal Corporation”, again Pres. Tyler vetoes. Tyler’s entire cabinet resigned, except Sec. of State Daniel Webster. Congress redrafted their tariff bill, Tyler reluctantly signed it into law.
Maine Boundary Dispute: Aroostook War British wanted to build a road westward from Halifax to Quebec, which would pass through part of Maine. Lumberjacks from Maine and Canada entered Aroostook River Valley - fights flared up – called Aroostook War. London sent Lord Ashburton to talk with Secretary Webster - agreed to compromise. Result: Americans keep 7,000 sq. miles – British got 5,000 sq. miles plus route that they wanted
Ch 17 TMWK 1.Map Pg 374 After the Aroostook War, describe the Maine Boundary settlement of 1842. 2.Pg 376 & 379 Describe what is happening in both pictures. (pay attention to contrasts in the individual picture)
Texas Argument against annexation: might give more power to supporters of slavery. Mexico refused to recognize Texas’s independence Pres John Tyler arranged for annexation of Texas in the U.S. by a joint resolution which required a majority vote, instead of 2/3 vote in Congress. 1845 Resolution passed: Texas formally invited to become 28 th state - few days before the next Pres – Polk, came into office. Mexico severed diplomatic relations with U.S. and refused to recognize Texas as US state
TMWK 3. Write down what Annexation and Manifest Destiny means.
MANIFEST DESTINY Phrase used by leaders/politicians in 1840s to explain continental expansion by U.S. – feeling a sense of "mission," They believed that God had destined them to spread their democratic institution over the continent. Reason for manifest destiny: Birth rates and increase in population, need for land
TMWK Allegory: characters or events represent or symbolize ideas and concepts. 7. Describe how the characters or events in the painting represent or symbolize ideas/concepts.
TMWK 4. Pg 379 Paragraph What Goals did Polk Set as President? 5. Pg 381 Paragraph What did Polk attempt to negotiate before the Mexican-American War? 6. Pg 381 Map The border of Oregon and Canada was in dispute. Which was the northern most boundary of “Oregon Country” and what boundary line did the US and British settle upon on the “compromise?”
Oregon Country Land West of Rockies to Pacific Ocean; north to the line of 54° 40’. Britain, France, Russia, and Spain had claims on the area. Spain & Russia gave up their claims to U.S. Now both British and US had exploration and occupation. 1840’s: American population increased in the area. By 1846 – 5,000 Americans. British proposed line of 49°, Polk asked the Senate to decide and they quickly approved the 49° border line in the 1846 Oregon Treaty.
President Polk: 4 Point Program (Defeated Clay in 1844 Election) 1. Tariff of 1846 (Walker Tariff) for revenue: the bill reduced Tariff of 1842 from 32% to 25%. 2. Restoration of independent treasury (dropped by Whigs in 1841) to place govt funds. 3. To acquire California 4. Settlement of Oregon border dispute: British proposed line of 49°, Polk asked Senate to decide - they quickly approved it.
Oregon 54° 40’: the claim the U.S. had in Oregon Territory 49° parallel (latitude) – the U.S. agreed to this border for Oregon
California and Texas? 1845: Pop. of California mixed – 13,000 Spanish Mexicans, 75,000 Native Americans, less than a thousand “foreigners.” 1845: Pres Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico City to offer $25 million for California and land to the east. Mexican govt refused the proposal. Southwestern border of Texas = Nueces River, but Texans were claiming the more southerly Rio Grande River as the border instead. When US annexed Texas, Mexico severed diplomatic relations with US and refused to recognize Texas as part of U.S.
Texas Border Dispute: Between U.S. and Mexico: Nueces River or Rio Grande River???
TMWK 8. In your opinion, did Polk provoke war with Mexico? Why or why not? 9. Pg 383 MAP Name two victories by the Americans and two victories by the Mexicans during the Mexican War. (U.S. vs. Mexico over Texas)
Polk Provokes War? Jan 1846: Pres Polk ordered 4,000 men under General Taylor to march from Nueces River to Rio Grande River. Pres Polk wanted to ask Congress to declare war on Mexico for 1) unpaid claims ($3 Million) 2) Rejection of Slidell. Is this reason enough for Congress to declare war on Mexico? April 1846: Mexican troops crossed Rio Grande and attacked General Taylor’s troops – 16 American casualties. Pres Polk cried “shedding of American blood on American soil.’” How was this bending the truth? Congress then voted for war against Mexico.
Palo Alto 5/8/1846 – First major battle and victory for U.S. Displayed U.S. advantages - artillery
US Conflict with Mexico Whig Congressman, Abraham Lincoln, introduced resolutions requesting information on the precise “spot” on American soil where American blood had been shed. Lincoln push the “spot resolutions” with persistence. Did Polk provoke War? Polk wanted California, but Mexico wasn’t selling it- only way was to use force or revolt. Dethroned Mexican dictator Santa Anna was exiled in Cuba. Polk permitted him to go back to Mexico if he would help U.S. acquire California. But when Santa Anna returned to Mexico, he rallied to defend Mexico’s land claims.
Mexican-American War 1846: American General Kearney captured Santa Fe. Captain John Fremont collaborated with American naval officers to overtake California. General Zachary Taylor fought his way across Rio Grande into Mexico. At Buena Vista, in 1847, Taylor’s troops of 5,000 men went up against 20,000 Mexican troops. Americans won. (Taylor = Hero of Buena Vista) 1847: American General Winfield Scott wins and takes Mexico City. Santa Anna
1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mexico recognized American claim to Texas US acquired lands of present-day CA, Nevada, Utah; and parts of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, Wyoming. US agreed to pay $15 million for the Mexican lands US agreed to assume the debts Mexico owed to the U.S. = $3,250,000 Treaty approved by Senate: US paid total of $18,250,000 for all the lands.
TMWK 11. Pg 388-389 Paragraph What is the Wilmot Proviso? Did the Wilmot Proviso pass?
Post Mexican-American War America increased in size by one-third Representative David Wilmot introduced amendment - the Wilmot Proviso: Wilmot Proviso: stipulated that slavery shouldn’t exist in any of the territory acquired from Mexican War. Proviso passed in the House, but NOT Senate (twice), so never became federal law. Reputation of ““Old Rough and Ready” Taylor – reputation would earn him presidency New territories brought into the Union will upset the balance of slave slates vs. free states – forced the issue to the forefront. (can’t be ignored)