Presentation on theme: "The Jacksonian Era 1824 - 1840 Chapter 12. John Quincy Adams Son of Abigail and John Adams Harvard University Intelligent and high morals Seemed hard."— Presentation transcript:
The Jacksonian Era Chapter 12
John Quincy Adams Son of Abigail and John Adams Harvard University Intelligent and high morals Seemed hard and cold Andrew Jackson “Hero of New Orleans” In the War of 1812 “Old Hickory” Man of the people William H. Crawford Farmer, school teacher, lawyer Secretary of War (Madison) Henry Clay Speaker of the House of Representatives Election of 1824
John Quincy Adams Democratic-Republican Massachusetts 30.9% 84 Andrew Jackson Democratic-Republican Tennessee 41.3% 99 William H. Crawford Democratic-Republican Georgia 11.2% 41 Henry Clay Democratic-Republican Kentucky 13.0% 37 Election of 1824 Popular Vote Winner Electoral College Won plurality but not majority
Andrew Jackson received the most popular votes in the 1824 election but not a majority of the electoral votes. The election would be decided in the House of Representatives
John Quincy AdamsAndrew Jackson William H. Crawford Henry Clay According to the 12 th Amendment the House had to decide between the top three candidates. Henry Clay was out of the running, but….. as Speaker of the House he was able to influence the results. Speaker of the House
John Quincy AdamsAndrew Jackson William H. Crawford Henry Clay Clay hated Jackson. Clay urged members of the House to vote for Adams. Jackson was shocked because he was the winner of the plurality of both the popular and electoral votes. Once Adams was named President he appointed Clay as Secretary of State. Corrupt Bargain “I cannot believe that killing 2,500 Englishmen at New Orleans qualifies for the various, difficult, and complicated duties of the Chief Magistracy.” House Vote Adams 13 Jackson 7 Crawford 4 “There was cheating and corruption and bribery, too!” Winner!! Secretary of State
Adams took office in March 1825 but the election had angered many Americans and this seriously hampered President Adams’s efforts to unify the nation. He made time nearly every day to skinny-dip in the Potomac River Until the 2000 election John Adams and John Quincy Adams were the only father and son to both serve as President. The only President to be elected to the House of Representatives after his Presidency. (Massachusetts) First President to be photographed, although it was taken after he was out of office.
Adams’ Goal: Adams thought that the federal government should promote economic growth. Economic Plan called for the government to pay for new roads and canals promote the arts and the sciences by building a national university and observatory from which astronomers could study the stars This would help farmers to transport goods to market
Most Americans objected to spending money on such programs. They feared that the federal government would become too powerful. Congress approved money for a national road and some canals but turned down most of Adams’ other programs.
Election of 1828 John Quincy Adams Andrew Jackson Adams is an aristocrat! Remember the “corrupt bargain!” Jackson is dangerous! He will become a dictator like Napoleon! New political party The Democratic-Republicans split between those who supported : Jackson - Democratic Republican Adams - National Republicans National Republicans Democratic-Republican
Alexis de Tocqueville Alexis de Tocqueville arrived in America in 1831 to study the American prison system. He observed a democratic society that inspired him to write the book Democracy in America. Tocqueville wrote that America was going through a revolution “incomparably greater than anything which has taken place in the world before.” Of all the countries in the world, America is that in which the spread of ideas and of human industry is most continual and most rapid... The American... Is less afraid than any other inhabitant of the globe to risk what he gained in the hope of a better future... There is not a country in the world where man.. Feels with more pride that he can fashion the universe to please himself” Growing Spirit of Equality
Suffrage: the right to vote Who could vote in the 1800s? white Men 21+ What had changed since the 1600s/1700s? you no longer had to own property no religious requirements Limits on Suffrage women Native Americans most African Americans Slaves had no political rights Growing Spirit of Equality
New Political Parties Whigs wanted the federal government to spur the economy supporters eastern business people southern planters Former Federalists National Republicans Democratic- Republicans Democrats for the ordinary people supporters frontier farmers factory workers in the East
Chief Justice John Marshall Andrew Jackson was the only President to pay off the national debt during his presidency. During his life he suffered from: smallpox, depression, malaria, dysentery and dropsy First President to ride on a train.
Jacksonian Democracy Jackson’s inauguration in 1829 reflected the growing spirit of democracy. First westerner to occupy the White House (Tennessee) man of the people – born in a log cabin and his parents were poor farmers it was the first time ordinary people went to the capital to watch the President take the oath of office
born in a log cabin parents died before he was 15 and he basically raised himself fought in the American Revolution at age 13 refused to clean a British soldiers boots and the soldier slashed Jackson’s hand and face with his sword. lawyer fought in the War of 1812 – led American forces to victory in the Battle of New Orleans defeated the Creek Indians in Georgia and Alabama fought in 13 duels most for the honor of his wife challenged Charles Dickinson to a duel in 1806 – Dickinson shot first and the shot broke two of Jackson’s ribs and lodged two inches from his heart. Jackson fired second and killed Dickinson. Jackson was shot in 1813 in the arm by Jesse Benton. The doctors suggested amputation but Jackson refused. The bullet was finally removed in 1831 (without anesthesia) Jackson Biography
He wanted to expand the powers of the president made full use of veto power believed the President represented all the American people opponents called him “King Andrew” Andrew Jackson as President
Advocate for Indian removal Creek Indians called him “Sharp Knife” he defeated them in the battle of Horseshoe Bend in the War of 1812 As President he continued to negotiate the removal of the Indians to lands in the west Andrew Jackson as President Treaty of Fort Jackson August 1814 He threatened to kill their leaders if they did not give up 20 million acres of lands that had been guaranteed to them by earlier treaties
The Spoils System Spoils system: the informal practice by which a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as rewards. Jackson did it on a much larger scale than previous Presidents. Critics accused him of rewarding Democrats rather than choosing qualified men Jackson argued that he was serving democracy by letting more citizens take part in government.
Kitchen Cabinet When Jackson rewarded his supporters with government jobs he did not necessarily pick them for their qualifications for the position. He soon stopped meeting with his official Cabinet and met with a group of unofficial friends. A term used by political opponents to describe the collection of unofficial advisors Jackson consulted with. Jackson’s Kitchen Cabinet Francis P. Blair, Duff Green, Isaac Hill, Amos Kendall, William B. Lewis journalists or editors of newspapers Democratic leaders
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania founded in 1816 by President Monroe charter from 1816 – 1836 Second Bank of the United States
Andrew Jackson objected to the Bank of the United States 1. unconstitutional Only states could charter banks and the bank was too powerful 2. undemocratic run by private bankers 3. disliked the President, Nicolas Biddle Jackson thought he was arrogant and vain and he used the bank to benefit the rich Jackson vetoed the bill to renew the Bank. The Bank would have to close in Jackson ordered the federal government to stop putting money in the Bank. The loss of federal money crippled the Bank and this led to an economic crisis 3 VETO
Congress passed the highest tariff in the history of the nation in John Quincy Adams signed it in May, This was one of the reasons he was not reelected. It put a 62% tax on 92% of imported goods. To protect industry in the North from European goods. North mostly factories/industry pro tariff South mostly agriculture against tariff Tariff of Abomination!!
Many people thought the tariff was unconstitutional. John C. Calhoun One of the biggest opponents to the Tariff was the Vice President John C. Calhoun. Calhoun was from South Carolina. He claimed that a state had the right to nullify a federal law that it considered to be unconstitutional. States are the final authority on the Constitution because they created the national government! Because Calhoun strongly disagreed with Jackson he resigned as Vice President in (He was the first Vice President to resign from office.) He was later elected as a Senator from South Carolina.
Nullification Crisis South Carolina passed the Nullification Act in Declared the tariff was illegal It threatened to secede from the Union if the Nullification Act was challenged President Andrew Jackson Reacts Publicly he supported a lower tariff Asked Congress to pass the Force Bill – it allowed him to use the army, if necessary, to enforce the tariff. This could lead to a civil war! John C. Calhoun
Nullification Crisis After other states saw President Jackson’s firm stand nobody decided to support South Carolina. Calhoun supported the compromise tariff that was offered and repealed the Nullification Act. The Nullification Crisis was over. However, the tension between the North and South was increasing.
Native Americans in the Southeast Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, and Seminole Many hoped to live in peace with their white neighbors The land was fertile and ideal for growing cotton and the settlers wanted the land for themselves The land should belong to the white settlers. Jackson and the Native Americans
Terms: It forced Native Americans to move west of the Mississippi. Whites thought the land west of the Mississippi was desert and therefore useless. Jackson supported a bill in Congress called the Indian Removal Act, 1830
Date: 1838 Who: Cherokee Indians What: The United States Army forced 15,000 Native Americans to march hundreds of miles over several months to reservations in the West. Outcome: 4,000 died (mostly women and children) In Cherokee the event is called Nunna daul Isunyi which means The trail where we cried.
The Seminole War is also known as the Florida Wars. There were 3 wars in Florida between various groups of Native Americans. First Seminole War * 1817 – 1818 * Treaty of Moultrie Creek was signed in Seminoles moved to southern Florida. Second Seminole War * 1835 – 1842 * Indian Removal Act passed in 1830 said Native Americans had to move west of Mississippi but the Seminoles refused to leave * This is known as the Seminole War and was the most expensive Indian War fought by the United States and lasted longer than any war involving US. Third Seminole War * 1855 – 1858 * The Seminoles were defeated. The government forced the Seminole leaders and most of their people to leave Florida. Chief Osceola
Election of 1836 The Democrat party chose Martin Van Buren. The Whig party was split and had 3 candidates. South Carolina ran its own candidate as an Independent Martin Van Buren Democrat William Henry Harrison Whig - West Hugh Lawson White Whig - South Daniel Webster Whig – New England Willie Person Mangum Independent – South Carolina
With the Whig party split Martin Van Buren easily won the election. Winner!
Martin Van Buren First President to be born a United States citizen (born after the Declaration of Independence) He was born in Kinderhook, New York First President who did not experience the American Revolution firsthand Only President not to have spoken English as a first language (he grew up speaking Dutch) His autobiography does not mention his wife, Hannah, once. Only served one term (though he did run for reelection) He was said to have said that the two happiest moments of his life were the day he took office as President and the day he left office.
Two months after taking office, Van Buren faced the worst economic crisis the nation had known. Causes 1. Banks and the Speculators 2.Cotton prices fell because of surplus. The planters could not repay loans 3.Bank Failures lead to hardships
Banks and the Speculators Speculators went to banks to trade paper money for gold Speculators borrowed $ from banks to buy land Banks loan paper currency even if not backed by gold Jackson said all land must be bought with gold Banks did not have enough gold and had to close closed
Cotton Prices Fell closed Planters had borrowed money to buy land to plant more cotton. This created a surplus. The price of cotton fell due to the surplus. Farmers could not repay their loans As a result more banks closed
Bank Closures Cause Hardships Banks closed People with money in the banks lost their money Businesses and factories closed Factory workers lost jobs President Van Buren
William Henry Harrison Martin Van Buren William Henry Harrison Political Party Whig Running Mate John Tyler Home State: Ohio Presented as a commoner (actually wealthy) Nickname Tippecanoe Martin Van Buren Political Party Democratic Home state New York Nickname Old Kinderhook Winner! Tippecanoe and Tyler Too!!!! Van Buren is O.K. with the Democratic Party!!! I may not have won, but everything is still O.K.
On March 4, 1841 William Henry Harrison gave the longest inaugural address in history; it was 8578 words. The speech lasted almost 2 hours. Harrison gave the speech in the middle of a snow storm. He refused to wear a coat or gloves. Harrison caught pneumonia and died 32 days later. He served the shortest term of any President.
Vice President John Tyler became the President. Tyler failed to live up to Whig expectations Tyler was a former Democrat and he opposed some Whig plans for developing the economy. Tyler vetoed a bill to recharter the Bank of the United States. Most of Tyler’s Cabinet resigned. The Whigs officially threw Tyler out of their party Because he was the first vice president to inherit the office of the presidency his detractors gave him the nickname “His Accidency” He fathered more children than any other president – He had 15 children.