2Election of 1824 John Quincy Adams Son of Abigail and John Adams Harvard UniversityIntelligent and high moralsSeemed hard and coldAndrew Jackson“Hero of New Orleans”In the War of 1812“Old Hickory”Man of the peopleElection of 1824William H. CrawfordFarmer, school teacher, lawyerSecretary of War (Madison)Henry ClaySpeaker of the House of Representatives
3Electoral College Election of 1824 Popular Vote Election of 1824 John Quincy AdamsDemocratic-RepublicanMassachusetts30.9%84Andrew JacksonDemocratic-RepublicanTennessee41.3%99Won plurality but not majorityWinnerElectoral CollegeElection of 1824Popular VoteElection of 1824William H. CrawfordDemocratic-RepublicanGeorgia11.2%41Henry ClayDemocratic-RepublicanKentucky13.0%37
4Andrew Jackson received the most popular votes in the 1824 election but not a majority of the electoral votes.The election would be decided in the House of Representatives
5as Speaker of the House he was able to influence the results. John Quincy AdamsAndrew JacksonWilliam H. CrawfordAccording to the 12th Amendment the House had to decide between the top three candidates. Henry Clay was out of the running, but…..as Speaker of the House he was able to influence the results.Henry ClaySpeaker of the House
6“There was cheating and corruption and bribery, too!” Winner!!John Quincy AdamsAndrew JacksonWilliam H. Crawford“I cannot believe that killing 2,500 Englishmen at New Orleans qualifies for the various, difficult, and complicated duties of the Chief Magistracy.”House VoteAdams 13Jackson 7Crawford 4Corrupt BargainHenry ClayClay hated Jackson.Clay urged members of the House to vote for Adams.Jackson was shocked because he was the winner of the plurality of both the popular and electoral votes.Once Adams was named President he appointed Clay as Secretary of State.Secretary of State
7Adams took office in March 1825 but the election had angered many Americans and this seriously hampered President Adams’s efforts to unify the nation.Until the 2000 election John Adams and John Quincy Adams were the only father and son to both serve as President.He made time nearly every day to skinny-dip in the Potomac RiverFirst President to be photographed, although it was taken after he was out of office.The only President to be elected to the House of Representatives after his Presidency. (Massachusetts)
8This would help farmers to transport goods to market Adams’ Goal:Adams thought that the federal government should promote economic growth.This would help farmers to transport goods to marketEconomic Plancalled for the government to pay for new roads and canalspromote the arts and the sciences by building a national university and observatory from which astronomers could study the stars
9Most Americans objected to spending money on such programs Most Americans objected to spending money on such programs. They feared that the federal government would become too powerful.Congress approved money for a national road and some canals but turned down most of Adams’ other programs.
10Election of 1828 New political party The Democratic-Republicans split between those who supported :Jackson - Democratic RepublicanAdams - National RepublicansJackson is dangerous! He will become a dictator like Napoleon!Adams is an aristocrat! Remember the “corrupt bargain!”John Quincy AdamsAndrew JacksonNational RepublicansDemocratic-Republican
12Growing Spirit of Equality Alexis de Tocqueville arrived in America in 1831 to study the American prison system. He observed a democratic society that inspired him to write the book Democracy in America. Tocqueville wrote that America was going through a revolution “incomparably greater than anything which has taken place in the world before.”Of all the countries in the world, America is that in which the spread of ideas and of human industry is most continual and most rapid The American Is less afraid than any other inhabitant of the globe to risk what he gained in the hope of a better future There is not a country in the world where man . . Feels with more pride that he can fashion the universe to please himself”Alexis de Tocqueville
13Growing Spirit of Equality Suffrage: the right to voteWho could vote in the 1800s?whiteMen21+What had changed since the 1600s/1700s?you no longer had to own propertyno religious requirementsLimits on SuffragewomenNative Americansmost African AmericansSlaves had no political rights
14Democratic-Republicans New Political PartiesNational RepublicansDemocratic-RepublicansWhigswanted the federal government to spur the economysupporterseastern business peoplesouthern plantersFormer FederalistsDemocratsfor the ordinary peoplesupportersfrontier farmersfactory workers in the East
15Chief Justice John Marshall First President to ride on a train.During his life he suffered from: smallpox, depression, malaria, dysentery and dropsyJohn Marshall – Chief Justice from 1801 – 1835 appointed by Adams took office with Jefferson through JacksonAndrew Jackson was the only President to pay off the national debt during his presidency.
16Jacksonian DemocracyJackson’s inauguration in 1829 reflected the growing spirit of democracy.First westerner to occupy the White House (Tennessee)man of the people – born in a log cabin and his parents were poor farmersit was the first time ordinary people went to the capital to watch the President take the oath of office
17Jackson Biography born in a log cabin parents died before he was 15 and he basically raised himselffought in the American Revolution at age 13refused to clean a British soldiers boots and the soldier slashed Jackson’s hand and face with his sword.lawyerfought in the War of 1812 –led American forces to victory in the Battle of New Orleansdefeated the Creek Indians in Georgia and Alabamafought in 13 duelsmost for the honor of his wifechallenged Charles Dickinson to a duel in 1806 – Dickinson shot first and the shot broke two of Jackson’s ribs and lodged two inches from his heart. Jackson fired second and killed Dickinson.Jackson was shot in 1813 in the arm by Jesse Benton. The doctors suggested amputation but Jackson refused. The bullet was finally removed in 1831 (without anesthesia)
18Andrew Jackson as President He wanted to expand the powers of the presidentmade full use of veto powerbelieved the President represented all the American peopleopponents called him “King Andrew”Vetoed bills he found objectionable not just ones that he thought violated the Cosntitution
19Andrew Jackson as President Advocate for Indian removalCreek Indians called him “Sharp Knife”he defeated them in the battle of Horseshoe Bend in the War of 1812As President he continued to negotiate the removal of the Indians to lands in the westTreaty of Fort Jackson August 1814He threatened to kill their leaders if they did not give up 20 million acres of lands that had been guaranteed to them by earlier treaties1814: William Weatherford, also known as Chief Red Eagle, surrenders to Andrew Jackson ( ), after the Creek Indians were defeated at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in Alabama.19
20accused him of rewarding Democrats rather than choosing qualified men The Spoils SystemSpoils system: the informal practice by which a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as rewards.Jackson did it on a much larger scale than previous Presidents.CriticsJackson argued that he was serving democracy by letting more citizens take part in government.accused him of rewarding Democrats rather than choosing qualified men
21Jackson’s Kitchen Cabinet A term used by political opponents to describe the collection of unofficial advisors Jackson consulted with.When Jackson rewarded his supporters with government jobs he did not necessarily pick them for their qualifications for the position.He soon stopped meeting with his official Cabinet and met with a group of unofficial friends.Jackson’s Kitchen CabinetFrancis P. Blair, Duff Green, Isaac Hill, Amos Kendall, William B. Lewisjournalists or editors of newspapersDemocratic leaders
22Second Bank of the United States Philadelphia, Pennsylvaniafounded in 1816 by President Monroecharter from 1816 – 1836
23VETO 3 Jackson vetoed the bill to renew the Bank. Andrew Jackson objected to the Bank of the United States1. unconstitutionalOnly states could charter banks and the bank was too powerful2. undemocraticrun by private bankers3. disliked the President, Nicolas BiddleJackson thought he was arrogant and vain and he used the bank to benefit the rich3Jackson vetoed the bill to renew the Bank.The Bank would have to close in 1836.Jackson ordered the federal government to stop putting money in the Bank. The loss of federal money crippled the Bank and this led to an economic crisisVETO
24Tariff of 1828 Why? Reactions Congress passed the highest tariff in the history of the nation in John Quincy Adams signed it in May, This was one of the reasons he was not reelected.It put a 62% tax on 92% of imported goods.To protect industry in the North from European goods.ReactionsTariff ofAbomination!!Northmostly factories/industrypro tariffSouthmostly agricultureagainst tariff
25Tariff of AbominationStates are the final authority on the Constitution because they created the national government!Many people thought the tariff was unconstitutional.One of the biggest opponents to the Tariff was the Vice President John C. Calhoun.John C. CalhounCalhoun was from South Carolina.He claimed that a state had the right to nullify a federal law that it considered to be unconstitutional.Because Calhoun strongly disagreed with Jackson he resigned as Vice President in (He was the first Vice President to resign from office.)He was later elected as a Senator from South Carolina.
26Nullification Crisis President Andrew Jackson Reacts South Carolina passed the Nullification Act in 1832.Declared the tariff was illegalIt threatened to secede from the Union if the Nullification Act was challengedThis could lead to a civil war!President Andrew Jackson ReactsPublicly he supported a lower tariffAsked Congress to pass the Force Bill – it allowed him to use the army, if necessary, to enforce the tariff.John C. Calhoun
27Nullification CrisisAfter other states saw President Jackson’s firm stand nobody decided to support South Carolina.Calhoun supported the compromise tariff that was offered and repealed the Nullification Act.The Nullification Crisis was over.However, the tension between the North and South was increasing.
28Jackson and the Native Americans Native Americans in the SoutheastCreek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, and SeminoleMany hoped to live in peace with their white neighborsThe land was fertile and ideal for growing cotton and the settlers wanted the land for themselvesThe land should belong to the white settlers.
29It forced Native Americans to move west of the Mississippi. Jackson supported a bill in Congress called the Indian Removal Act, 1830Terms:It forced Native Americans to move west of the Mississippi.Whites thought the land west of the Mississippi was desert and therefore useless.
30Trail of TearsIn Cherokee the event is called Nunna daul Isunyi which means The trail where we cried.Date: 1838Who: Cherokee IndiansWhat: The United States Army forced 15,000 Native Americans to march hundreds of miles over several months to reservations in the West.Outcome: 4,000 died (mostly women and children)
31Chief OsceolaSeminole WarsThe Seminole War is also known as the Florida Wars. There were 3 wars in Florida between various groups of Native Americans.First Seminole War* 1817 – 1818* Treaty of Moultrie Creek was signed in Seminoles moved to southern Florida.Second Seminole War* – 1842* Indian Removal Act passed in 1830 said Native Americans had to move west of Mississippi but the Seminoles refused to leave* This is known as the Seminole War and was the most expensive Indian War fought by the United States and lasted longer than any war involving US.Third Seminole War* – 1858* The Seminoles were defeated. The government forced the Seminole leaders and most of their people to leave Florida.
32Election of 1836 The Democrat party chose Martin Van Buren. William Henry HarrisonWhig - WestHugh Lawson WhiteWhig - SouthDaniel WebsterWhig – New EnglandWillie Person MangumIndependent – South CarolinaThe Democrat party chose Martin Van Buren.The Whig party was split and had 3 candidates.South Carolina ran its own candidate as an Independent
33Winner!With the Whig party split Martin Van Buren easily won the election.
34Martin Van BurenFirst President to be born a United States citizen (born after the Declaration of Independence)First President who did not experience the American Revolution firsthandHe was born in Kinderhook, New YorkOnly President not to have spoken English as a first language (he grew up speaking Dutch)Only served one term (though he did run for reelection)He was said to have said that the two happiest moments of his life were the day he took office as President and the day he left office.His autobiography does not mention his wife, Hannah, once.
35Panic of 1837Two months after taking office, Van Buren faced the worst economic crisis the nation had known.Causes1. Banks and the SpeculatorsCotton prices fell because of surplus. The planters could not repay loansBank Failures lead to hardships
36Banks and the Speculators Banks loan paper currency even if not backed by goldSpeculators borrowed $ from banks to buy landJackson said all land must be bought with goldBanks did not have enough gold and had to closeSpeculators went to banks to trade paper money for goldclosed
37Cotton Prices Fell Planters had borrowed money to buy land to plant morecotton.This createda surplus.The price ofcotton fell dueto the surplus.Farmers couldnot repaytheir loansAs a resultmore banksclosedclosed
38Bank Closures Cause Hardships People with money in the banks lost their moneyBusinesses and factoriesclosedFactory workers lost jobsBanks closedWho is to blame?President Van Buren
39Election of 1840 Tippecanoe and Tyler Too!!!! I may not have won, but everything is still O.K.Tippecanoe and Tyler Too!!!!William Henry HarrisonPolitical PartyWhigRunning MateJohn TylerHome State:OhioPresented as a commoner (actually wealthy)NicknameTippecanoeWinner!Van Buren is O.K. with the Democratic Party!!!Martin Van BurenWilliam Henry HarrisonMartin Van BurenPolitical PartyDemocraticHome stateNew YorkNicknameOld Kinderhook1839: The initials “O.K.” are first published in The Boston Morning Post. Meant as an abbreviation for “oll Correct” a popular slang misspelling of “all correct”.
40On March 4, 1841 William Henry Harrison gave the longest inaugural address in history; it was 8578 words.The speech lasted almost 2 hours.Harrison gave the speech in the middle of a snow storm. He refused to wear a coat or gloves.Harrison caught pneumonia and died 32 days later.He served the shortest term of any President.
41Vice President John Tyler became the President. Tyler failed to live up to Whig expectationsTyler was a former Democrat and he opposed some Whig plans for developing the economy.Tyler vetoed a bill to recharter the Bank of the United States.Most of Tyler’s Cabinet resigned.The Whigs officially threw Tyler out of their partyBecause he was the first vice president to inherit the office of the presidency his detractors gave him the nickname “His Accidency”He fathered more children than any other president – He had 15 children.