Presentation on theme: "How Can Learning Experiences Be Organized For Effective Instruction?"— Presentation transcript:
1How Can Learning Experiences Be Organized For Effective Instruction? By Ralph W. TylerPresented byPaul Corcoran & Linda Wolf
2OrganizationThe procedures for organizing learning experiences into units, courses, and programs.Educational experiences must be organized in order to reinforce the learning process.
3Vertical & Horizontal Relationships Vertical is going from grade level to grade level based upon content.Horizontal is integrating different content within the same grade level.Consequences of experiences not relating.
4Criteria for Effective Organization ContinuitySequenceIntegration
5Continuity Vertical reiteration of major curriculum elements. Repeated opportunities to practice skills.Repetition of concepts.
6SequenceEach experiences is built upon the preceding experiences and goes more broadly and deeply into the content.Increasing the complexity of skill.Higher levels of treatment with each successive learning experience.
7Integration Horizontal relationship of curriculum experiences. The students increasingly get a unified view which unifies behavior in relation to the elements.
8Elements to Be Organized Identify the elements of the curriculum which serve as the organizing threads.The threads will serve as an organizing element in achieving continuity, sequence and integration.For example: Concepts, Values and Skills
9Organizing Principles Extend, broaden, and deepen concepts for planning major curriculum elements.Criteria, continuity, sequence, and integration apply to the experiences of the learner.Logical is what the expert understands and knows.Psychological is a scheme of development that is meaningful learner.
10Other Organizing Principles Increasing breadth of applicationIncreasing range of activities includedThe use of description followed by analysisThe development of specific illustrations followed by broader and broader principles to explain these illustrationsThe attempt to build an increasingly unified world picture from specific parts which are first built into larger and larger wholes.
11The Organizing Structure Largest Level of Structural ElementsIntermediate LevelLowest Level
12Largest Level of Structural Elements Specific SubjectsBroad FieldsCore CurriculumUndifferentiated Structure
13Intermediate Level Sequential Courses Single Semester Courses or Year Units
15Achieving Desirable Organization Any structural arrangement that provides for larger blocks of time under which planning may go on has an advantage over a structural organization which cuts up the total time into many specific units, each of which has to be planned with some kind of transition and consideration of the work of other units.
16The Process of Planning a Unit of Organization General scheme of organizationGeneral organizing principlesDaily lessons, sequential topics, or teaching unitsFlexible plans or source unitsPupil-teacher planning