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Curriculum Development & Models DED 0122: Curriculum & Teaching Course Instructor Said A.S.Yunus 4/21/20151 DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING.

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Presentation on theme: "Curriculum Development & Models DED 0122: Curriculum & Teaching Course Instructor Said A.S.Yunus 4/21/20151 DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING."— Presentation transcript:

1 Curriculum Development & Models DED 0122: Curriculum & Teaching Course Instructor Said A.S.Yunus 4/21/20151 DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING

2 Objectives At the end of this lecture, student should be able to: 1. Define curriculum development 2. Define the concept of model 3. Identify types of curriculum development models 4/21/20152 DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING

3 What is curriculum development? Curriculum development is the organized preparation of whatever is going to be taught in schools at a given time in a given year. They are made into official documents, as guides for teachers, and made obligatory by provincial and territorial departments 4/21/20153 DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING

4 What is curriculum development? Curriculum Development can be defined as the systematic planning of what is taught and learned in schools as reflected in courses of study and school programs. These curricula are embodied in official documents (typically curriculum "guides" for teachers) and made mandatory by provincial and territorial departments of education 4/21/20154 DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING

5 What is curriculum development? Curriculum development is the process of setting up and establishing specific guidelines of instruction for the curriculum. 4/21/20155 DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING

6 The Curriculum: models 4/21/20156 DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING

7 Curriculum models Model: Definition: A simplified representation of reality which is often depicted in diagrammatic form 4/21/20157 DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING

8 Curriculum models Model: Purpose: To provide a structure for examining the elements that go to make up curriculum planning, and how these elements interrelate. 4/21/20158 DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING

9 Curriculum models Model: The literature in the area of curriculum has accepted the use of the term ‘model’ to explain both the nature and the process of curriculum development. 4/21/20159 DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING

10 Curriculum models Models are used to explain: levels of curriculum aspects of organization practice aspects of classroom instruction types of decision making 4/21/ DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING

11 Curriculum models Are designed to provide a basis for decisions regarding the selection, structuring and sequencing of the educational experiences 4/21/ DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING

12 The curriculum process  The development of a curriculum involves the developer in decisions about the nature and appropriateness of the substantive (basic) elements, e.g. the Outcomes Content method assessment strategies  These decisions are made in relation to the context in which the curriculum will operate. 4/21/ DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING

13 Types of curriculum models  Rational/objectives models  Cyclical models  Dynamic/interaction models 4/21/ DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING

14 A continuum of curriculum models Rational/objectives models: Ralph Tyler Hilda Taba 4/21/ DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING

15 A continuum of curriculum models Cyclical models: Wheeler Nichols 4/21/ DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING

16 A continuum of curriculum models Dynamic/interaction models : Walker Skilbeck 4/21/ DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING

17 Ralph Tyler's Model/Rationale Ralph Tyler considered four considerations in curriculum development: 1.purposes of the school 2.educational experiences related to the purposes 3.organization of the experiences 4.evaluation of the experiences 4/21/ DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING

18 4/21/ DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING

19 Hilda Taba's Linear Model Hilda Taba believed that teachers who teach or implement the curriculum should participate in developing it. Her advocacy was commonly called the "grassroots approach" where teachers could have a major input. She presented seven major steps: 4/21/ DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING

20 Hilda Taba's Linear Model 1. Diagnosis of needs. The teacher (curriculum designer) starts the process by identifying the needs of the students for whom the curriculum is to be planned 2. Formulation of learning objectives. After the teacher has identified the needs that require attention, he or she specifies objectives to be accomplished. 4/21/ DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING

21 Hilda Taba's Linear Model  Selection of learning content. The objectives selected or created suggest the subject matter or content of the curriculum. Not only should objectives and content match but also the validity and significance of the content chosen needs to be determined.  Organization of learning content. A teacher can not just select content, but must organize it in some type of sequence, taking into consideration the maturity of the learners, their academic achievement, and their interests.. 4/21/ DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING

22 Hilda Taba's Linear Model  Selection of learning experiences. Content must be presented to pupils and pupils must engage the content. At this point, the teacher select instructional methods that will involve students with the content.  Organization of learning activities. Just as content must be sequenced and organized, so must the learning activities. Often the sequence of the learning activities is determined by the content. But the teacher needs to keep in mind the particular students whom he or she will be teaching. 4/21/ DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING

23 Hilda Taba's Linear Model  Evaluation and means of evaluation. The curriculum planner must determine just what objectives have been accomplished. Evaluation procedures need to be considered by the students and teachers. 4/21/ DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING

24 Curriculum Development 1 Selection of Aims 2 Selection of Content & Learning Experiences 3 Organization of content & Learning Experiences 4 Evaluation of Learning outcomes Some curriculum experts like Tyler say that the steps are followed in a sequence or a straight line. This model that assumes that curriculum decision making follows a straight line is called linear model 4/21/2015 DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING 24

25 Curriculum Development Other scholars argue that curriculum decision making is not a simple linear process that necessarily starts with aims. One of them is Wheeler (1978) who believes that curriculum decision making can start from any point and can come back to any of the points e.g. like a cycle Aims, Goals & Objectives Selection of Learning Experiences Selection of Content Organisation & Integration of Learning Experiences & Content Evaluation 4/21/2015 DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING 25

26 Curriculum Development Kerr (1968) also believes that curriculum process is a very complex set of activities and decisions and they interact a lot. Changes made in content may necessitate changes in experiences, which may again bring about changes in evaluation etc. ObjectiveContent Learning Experience Evaluation 4/21/2015 DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING 26

27 Evaluation What was useful? What was not so useful? What needs to be Changed? DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING 274/21/2015

28 THANK YOU FOR LISTENING DED 0122: CURRICULUM & TEACHING 284/21/2015


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