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Evaluating the Curriculum Chapter 13 Presentation J. Bradshaw and A. Hamrick GFC.

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Presentation on theme: "Evaluating the Curriculum Chapter 13 Presentation J. Bradshaw and A. Hamrick GFC."— Presentation transcript:

1 Evaluating the Curriculum Chapter 13 Presentation J. Bradshaw and A. Hamrick GFC

2 Evaluating The Curriculum Describe several processes for evaluating the curriculum Describe several processes for evaluating the curriculum Explain the major features of curriculum evaluation models Explain the major features of curriculum evaluation models Describe how these models can be used Describe how these models can be used Describe how these models can be applied Describe how these models can be applied Describe 8 principles of curriculum construction and significance to planners Describe 8 principles of curriculum construction and significance to planners

3 The Process 2. What is curriculum evaluation? Instructional evaluation Instructional evaluation Assessment of the program and related areas Assessment of the program and related areas Evaluation is the means for determining what needs improvement and for providing a basis for effecting that improvement Evaluation is the means for determining what needs improvement and for providing a basis for effecting that improvement

4 Problems in Evaluation Albert I. Oliver – The 5 Ps Program Program Provisions Provisions Procedures Procedures Products Products Processes Processes

5 Evaluation Models Limited Models and Comprehensive Models Limited Models and Comprehensive Models Limited Models Limited Models Evaluation of curriculum objectives Evaluation of curriculum objectives Specify performance or behavior to be demonstrated Specify performance or behavior to be demonstrated Include a degree of mastery Include a degree of mastery State conditions under which the performance will take place, if not readily understood State conditions under which the performance will take place, if not readily understood Refer to programs, not specific content and accomplishments of groups of students rather than individual students Refer to programs, not specific content and accomplishments of groups of students rather than individual students

6 Limited Models Curriculum evaluation is the assessment of achievement of the specified curriculum objectives Curriculum evaluation is the assessment of achievement of the specified curriculum objectives Observation surveys Observation surveys Portfolios Portfolios Test results Test results If the curriculum objectives have not been met, planners must determine whether the objectives still merit pursuing and if so, what measures must be taken to achieve them If the curriculum objectives have not been met, planners must determine whether the objectives still merit pursuing and if so, what measures must be taken to achieve them

7 8 perennial problems of curriculum construction and organization Scope Scope Relevance Relevance Balance Balance Integration Integration Sequence Sequence Continuity Continuity Articulation Articulation Transferability Transferability

8 Scope The breadth of the curriculum The breadth of the curriculum content content topics topics learning experiences learning experiences activities activities organizing threads and centers – focal points for learning through which the school’s objectives are to be attained organizing threads and centers – focal points for learning through which the school’s objectives are to be attained Explosion of knowledge – limiting subject matter Explosion of knowledge – limiting subject matter

9 Scope Continued Aims Procedure – a selection of skills, concepts, and knowledge to be incorporated into the curriculum Caswell and Campbell – aim of education is stated, specific objectives indicated the scope of the curriculum Aims Procedure – a selection of skills, concepts, and knowledge to be incorporated into the curriculum Caswell and Campbell – aim of education is stated, specific objectives indicated the scope of the curriculum Necessary Decisions – What do young people need in order to succeed in our society? What are the needs of our locality, state, nation, and world? What are the essentials of each discipline? Necessary Decisions – What do young people need in order to succeed in our society? What are the needs of our locality, state, nation, and world? What are the essentials of each discipline?

10 Relevance Varying interpretations – What is relevant in the suburbs may not be relevant in the inner city. Varying interpretations – What is relevant in the suburbs may not be relevant in the inner city. B. Othanel Smith – What is most assuredly useful? B. Othanel Smith – What is most assuredly useful? Uses of knowledge Uses of knowledge the ability of the learner to relate freely, bringing about solutions to problems. Abstract knowledge helps individuals to interpret their environment which they cannot do without fundamental knowledge the ability of the learner to relate freely, bringing about solutions to problems. Abstract knowledge helps individuals to interpret their environment which they cannot do without fundamental knowledge

11 Balance Something that schools may not have, but, apparently should Something that schools may not have, but, apparently should Halverson – a balanced curriculum implies structure and order in its scope and sequence leading to the achievement of educational objectives Halverson – a balanced curriculum implies structure and order in its scope and sequence leading to the achievement of educational objectives Goodlad – what kind and how much attention to give learners and subject matter Goodlad – what kind and how much attention to give learners and subject matter Ronald C. Doll – a balanced curriculum for a given learner at a given time would completely fit the learner in terms of his or her particular educational needs at that time Ronald C. Doll – a balanced curriculum for a given learner at a given time would completely fit the learner in terms of his or her particular educational needs at that time

12 Integration The blending, fusion, or unification of disciplines The blending, fusion, or unification of disciplines Optional and controversial Optional and controversial Hinges on the philosophy of the nature of knowledge Hinges on the philosophy of the nature of knowledge Traditionally schools have felt that integration of subject matter was not too important or detrimental to student achievement Traditionally schools have felt that integration of subject matter was not too important or detrimental to student achievement Progressives feel that understanding is improved when barriers between disciplines are removed Progressives feel that understanding is improved when barriers between disciplines are removed

13 Correlation Relating of subjects to one another while still maintaining their separateness Relating of subjects to one another while still maintaining their separateness Relationships between subjects taught at a particular school level are shown to students as in history and literature Relationships between subjects taught at a particular school level are shown to students as in history and literature Correlation becomes integration when the subjects lose their identities Correlation becomes integration when the subjects lose their identities Regardless of how the material is presented, the learner must integrate the knowledge into his or her own behavior Regardless of how the material is presented, the learner must integrate the knowledge into his or her own behavior

14 Sequence The order in which the organizing elements are arranged by the curriculum planners The order in which the organizing elements are arranged by the curriculum planners Problems of Sequencing Problems of Sequencing the maturity of the learners the maturity of the learners the interest of the learners the interest of the learners the readiness of the learner the readiness of the learner the difficulty of the items to be learned the difficulty of the items to be learned the relationship between items the relationship between items the prerequisite skills needed in each case the prerequisite skills needed in each case

15 Continuity The planned repetition of content at successive levels, each time at an increased level of complexity The planned repetition of content at successive levels, each time at an increased level of complexity Spiral Curriculum – concepts, skills, and knowledge are introduced and reintroduced Spiral Curriculum – concepts, skills, and knowledge are introduced and reintroduced Expertise Needed – demands both knowledge of the subject field and of the learners Expertise Needed – demands both knowledge of the subject field and of the learners

16 Articulation The meshing of organizing elements across school levels The meshing of organizing elements across school levels Horizontal and Vertical – correlation and continuity Horizontal and Vertical – correlation and continuity Gaps between levels - become a problem with articulation Gaps between levels - become a problem with articulation Personal articulation – students personal articulation, schools look for ways to respond to students’ varied capabilities Personal articulation – students personal articulation, schools look for ways to respond to students’ varied capabilities Improved articulation eases the movement of students from one level to the next Improved articulation eases the movement of students from one level to the next

17 Comprehensive Models The Saylor, Alexander and Lewis Model The Saylor, Alexander and Lewis Model The CIPP Model The CIPP Model

18 Transferability Learning in school should have applicability in either a broad or narrow sense outside of school and after school years Learning in school should have applicability in either a broad or narrow sense outside of school and after school years Education in some way should enrich the life of the individual Education in some way should enrich the life of the individual

19 Saylor Model 1. The goals, subgoals, and objectives 1. The goals, subgoals, and objectives 2. The program of education as a totality 2. The program of education as a totality 3. The specific segments of the education program 3. The specific segments of the education program 4. Instruction 4. Instruction 5. Evaluation program 5. Evaluation program

20 The Saylor Model

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22 Evaluation of Goals, Subgoals and Objectives Analysis of the needs of society Analysis of the needs of society Analysis of the needs of the individual Analysis of the needs of the individual Referring the goals, subgoals and objectives to various groups Referring the goals, subgoals and objectives to various groups referring the goals, subgoals and objectives to subject matter specialists referring the goals, subgoals and objectives to subject matter specialists Use of summative data Use of summative data

23 Author’s version of Saylor model Evaluation of instruction Evaluation of instruction Evaluation of specific segments Evaluation of specific segments Evaluative instruments Evaluative instruments Evaluation of total program Evaluation of total program Evaluation of the evaluation program Evaluation of the evaluation program

24 The CIPP Model Context Context Input Input Process Process Product Product Definition - “Evaluation is the process of delineating, obtaining, and providing useful information for judging decision alternatives Definition - “Evaluation is the process of delineating, obtaining, and providing useful information for judging decision alternatives

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26 Four types of decisions and change Large change low information - Neomobilistic change Large change low information - Neomobilistic change Small change low information - Incremental change Small change low information - Incremental change Small change high information - Homeostatic change Small change high information - Homeostatic change Large change high information - Metamorphic change Large change high information - Metamorphic change

27 Author’s Model

28 Standards for Evaluation Needs to be some agreed upon standards. Needs to be some agreed upon standards.

29 Works Cited Oliva, Peter F. “Evaluating the Curriculum”. Developing the Curriculum, 5 th ed. New York: Longman, 2001, 438-486. Oliva, Peter F. “Evaluating the Curriculum”. Developing the Curriculum, 5 th ed. New York: Longman, 2001, 438-486.


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