Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9- Aims, Goals, Objectives"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 9- Aims, Goals, Objectives Since education is intentional activity, it makes sense to be clear as to purposeTechnical Camp: knowing or stating precisely the outcomes of students in regard to knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviorsNontechnical Camp: can be clear wrt intentions to furnish students with definite types of curricular experiences, but we should not be so specific as to what outcomes will result that we prevent students from generating their own knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors
2 Aims of Education General statements that provide shape and direction Starting points that suggest an ideal or inspirational vision of the goodGuides for the educational processOnly a few aims are necessary to guide educationTyler’s Aims of American schooling (p269)Doll’s Aims (p270) address the cognitive, the affective, and the productive. Ornstein and Hunkins added physical, aesthetic, moral, and spiritual.
3 Sources of Aims Spencer’s Report Cardinal Principles of Secondary EducationThe Purpose of Education in American DemocracyEducation for All American YouthThe Central Purpose of American EducationA Nation at RiskSee pagesInterest GroupsEducators are confronted by new, vocal pressure groupsEducators must process the needs and interests of these groups along with those of traditional pressure groupsIn processing the information, educators must both maintain and share professional control, yet address the demands placed on them
4 Goals of Education Statements of purpose with some outcome in mind Address certain characteristics of the learner who attains the goalsDesired outcomes for students as a result of experiencing the curriculumDerived from various aims
5 Levels of GoalsAims become goals when they become more specific and refer to a particular school or school system and to a specific subject area of the curriculumStudents should be familiar with the National Goals (1990) P 273
6 Formulating Goals Timelessness Address the needs of society, of students, or the particular communitySee Curriculum Tips page 275
7 ObjectivesMore specific statements of the outcomes of the curriculum or project being consideredStatements that enable curriculum decision makers to identify the particular intent of a particular actionPhilosophy Aims Goals Objectives
8 Types of Educational Objectives Program ObjectivesAddress subjects at particular grade levelsCourse ObjectivesRelate to particular courses within grade levelsClassroom ObjectivesDivided into unit objectives and lesson plan objectives
9 Conceptions of Objectives TabaSchool-wide outcomesUnit, course or grade level program outcomesOrnsteinprogram objectivescourse objectivesclassroom objectivesPosner and RudnitskyIntended Learning OutcomesProgram objectives: address subjects at particular grade levelsCourse objectives: related to particular courses within grade levelsClassroom objectives: divided into unit objectives and lesson plan objectivesIntended (Not referring to accidental learning)Learning(the bottom line for planning is student performance)Outcomes(results from students experiencing the curriculum)
10 Behavioral Objectives precise statements of outcomes in terms of observable behavior expected of students after instructionMager:An educational objective must describethe behavior of the learner when demonstrating his or her achievement of the objectivethe condition imposed on the learner when demonstrating mastery of the objectivethe minimum proficiency level that would be acceptable
11 Nonbehavioral Objectives Examples: Appreciate, Know, UnderstandObjections to behavioral objectivesthey only emphasize the teaching of facts at he expense of more complicated intellectual behaviorsthey place a sameness on the curriculum, assuming all must master identical material and do so in almost identical waysthe nurture a rigidity in learning and tend to deny the unique learning outcomes of students (factory-like learning)they dehumanize individuals, overlook individual outcomes, and stifle creativity and spontaneitythey negate that learning is much more than the gathering and hoarding of specific facts learned in isolation
12 Guidelines for Formulating Educational Objectives MatchingWorthWordingAppropriatenessLogical GroupingPeriodic RevisionSee Curriculum Tips p 280
13 Taxonomic Levels Cognitive Domain Affective Domain Psychomotor Domain The taxonomies are arranged in hierarchies in which the levels increase in complexity from simple to more advanced. Each level depends on the acquisition of the previous level.
16 Psychomotor Domain Harrow’s Taxonomy Reflex Movements Fundamental MovementsPerceptual AbilitiesPhysical AbilitiesSkilled MovementsNondiscursive Communication
17 Approaches to Educational Objectives BehavioristManagerialSystemsHumanisticReconceptualistMay want to refer back to Chapter 1
18 Behavioral technical/scientific concern for specificity we can identify essential learningscompartmentalization of curriculumdefined scope and sequenceconvergent emphasis on curricular learnings
19 Systems/Managerial Systems and organizational Theories Interrelatedness of the parts of the organizationObjectives are part of the total process of decision making and curriculum implementationManagement by objectivesCurriculum as a system of related components
20 Humanistic Focus on the person Personal growth, joy of learning, respect for othersCurriculum seen as divergentOpportunities for students to explore, to become self-directed
21 ReconceptualistsPolitical and social posture with a theoretical critiqueEmpower individual to be more fully human, socially sensitive, and existentialCurriculum is emergent- concern with those processes that allow for control of one’s learning
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