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Chapter 9- Aims, Goals, Objectives

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1 Chapter 9- Aims, Goals, Objectives
Since education is intentional activity, it makes sense to be clear as to purpose Technical Camp: knowing or stating precisely the outcomes of students in regard to knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors Nontechnical Camp: can be clear wrt intentions to furnish students with definite types of curricular experiences, but we should not be so specific as to what outcomes will result that we prevent students from generating their own knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors

2 Aims of Education General statements that provide shape and direction
Starting points that suggest an ideal or inspirational vision of the good Guides for the educational process Only a few aims are necessary to guide education Tyler’s Aims of American schooling (p269) Doll’s Aims (p270) address the cognitive, the affective, and the productive. Ornstein and Hunkins added physical, aesthetic, moral, and spiritual.

3 Sources of Aims Spencer’s Report
Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education The Purpose of Education in American Democracy Education for All American Youth The Central Purpose of American Education A Nation at Risk See pages Interest Groups Educators are confronted by new, vocal pressure groups Educators must process the needs and interests of these groups along with those of traditional pressure groups In processing the information, educators must both maintain and share professional control, yet address the demands placed on them

4 Goals of Education Statements of purpose with some outcome in mind
Address certain characteristics of the learner who attains the goals Desired outcomes for students as a result of experiencing the curriculum Derived from various aims

5 Levels of Goals Aims become goals when they become more specific and refer to a particular school or school system and to a specific subject area of the curriculum Students should be familiar with the National Goals (1990) P 273

6 Formulating Goals Timelessness
Address the needs of society, of students, or the particular community See Curriculum Tips page 275

7 Objectives More specific statements of the outcomes of the curriculum or project being considered Statements that enable curriculum decision makers to identify the particular intent of a particular action Philosophy Aims Goals Objectives

8 Types of Educational Objectives
Program Objectives Address subjects at particular grade levels Course Objectives Relate to particular courses within grade levels Classroom Objectives Divided into unit objectives and lesson plan objectives

9 Conceptions of Objectives
Taba School-wide outcomes Unit, course or grade level program outcomes Ornstein program objectives course objectives classroom objectives Posner and Rudnitsky Intended Learning Outcomes Program objectives: address subjects at particular grade levels Course objectives: related to particular courses within grade levels Classroom objectives: divided into unit objectives and lesson plan objectives Intended (Not referring to accidental learning)Learning(the bottom line for planning is student performance)Outcomes(results from students experiencing the curriculum)

10 Behavioral Objectives
precise statements of outcomes in terms of observable behavior expected of students after instruction Mager: An educational objective must describe the behavior of the learner when demonstrating his or her achievement of the objective the condition imposed on the learner when demonstrating mastery of the objective the minimum proficiency level that would be acceptable

11 Nonbehavioral Objectives
Examples: Appreciate, Know, Understand Objections to behavioral objectives they only emphasize the teaching of facts at he expense of more complicated intellectual behaviors they place a sameness on the curriculum, assuming all must master identical material and do so in almost identical ways the nurture a rigidity in learning and tend to deny the unique learning outcomes of students (factory-like learning) they dehumanize individuals, overlook individual outcomes, and stifle creativity and spontaneity they negate that learning is much more than the gathering and hoarding of specific facts learned in isolation

12 Guidelines for Formulating Educational Objectives
Matching Worth Wording Appropriateness Logical Grouping Periodic Revision See Curriculum Tips p 280

13 Taxonomic Levels Cognitive Domain Affective Domain Psychomotor Domain
The taxonomies are arranged in hierarchies in which the levels increase in complexity from simple to more advanced. Each level depends on the acquisition of the previous level.

14 Cognitive Domain Bloom’s Taxonomy Knowledge Comprehension Application
Analysis Synthesis Evaluation

15 Affective Domain Krathwohl’s Taxonomy Receiving Responding Valuing
Organization Characterization

16 Psychomotor Domain Harrow’s Taxonomy Reflex Movements
Fundamental Movements Perceptual Abilities Physical Abilities Skilled Movements Nondiscursive Communication

17 Approaches to Educational Objectives
Behaviorist Managerial Systems Humanistic Reconceptualist May want to refer back to Chapter 1

18 Behavioral technical/scientific concern for specificity
we can identify essential learnings compartmentalization of curriculum defined scope and sequence convergent emphasis on curricular learnings

19 Systems/Managerial Systems and organizational Theories
Interrelatedness of the parts of the organization Objectives are part of the total process of decision making and curriculum implementation Management by objectives Curriculum as a system of related components

20 Humanistic Focus on the person
Personal growth, joy of learning, respect for others Curriculum seen as divergent Opportunities for students to explore, to become self-directed

21 Reconceptualists Political and social posture with a theoretical critique Empower individual to be more fully human, socially sensitive, and existential Curriculum is emergent- concern with those processes that allow for control of one’s learning

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