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Planning, Instruction, and Technology Pertemuan 9

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Presentation on theme: "Planning, Instruction, and Technology Pertemuan 9"— Presentation transcript:

1 Planning, Instruction, and Technology Pertemuan 9
Matakuliah : E Psikologi Pendidikan Tahun : 2010 Planning, Instruction, and Technology Pertemuan 9

2 Planning Instructional Planning: A systematic, organized strategy for planning lesson. Time Frames and Planning: What needs to be done Set instrutional goals (what do I expect to accomplish) Plan Activities (what do I have to do to reach the goals) Set Priorities (which tasks are more important than other) The time to do it Make time estimates (how much time will each activity take?) Creative Schedule (When will we do each activity?) Be flexible (How will I handle unexpected occurances?) Bina Nusantara University

3 Five Time Spans of Teacher Planning
Robert Yinger (1980) identified five time spans of teacher planing; yearly planning, term planning, unit planning, weekly planning, daily planning Teachers attend to four areas when planning; goals, sources of information, the form of the plan, and criteria for the effectiveness of the planning Bina Nusantara University

4 Teacher-Centered Lesson Planning and Instruction
Behavioral Objectives ; statements that communicate proposed changes in students’s behavior to reach desired levels of performance. Task Analysis: breaking down a complex task that students are to learn into its component parts Instructional Taxonomy ; a classification system developed by Benjamin Bloom and collegues; consists of educational objectives in three domain- cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. Bina Nusantara University

5 Bloom’s Taxonomy The Cognitive Domain:
Knowledge, students have the ability to remember information Comprehension; students understand the information and can explain it in their own words. Application; students use knowledge to solve real-life problems Analysis; students break down complex information into smaller part and relate information to other information. Sinthesis; students combine elements and create new information. Evaluation; students make good judgements and decisions. Bina Nusantara University

6 Bloom’s Taxonomy The Affective Domain;
Receiving; students become aware of or attend to something in the environment. Responding ; students become motivated to learn and display a new behavior as a result of an experience. Valuing; students become involved in, or committed to, some experience. Oreganizing; students integrate a new value into an already existing set of values and give it proper priority Value Characteizing; students act in accordance with the value and are firmly committed to it. Bina Nusantara University

7 Bloom’s Taxonomy The Psychomotor Domain;
Reflex movements; students respond involuntarily without conscious thought to a stimulus Basic fundamentals; students make basic voluntary movements that are directed toward a particular purpose. Percetual abilities; students use their senses to guide their skill efforts. Physical abilities; students develop general skills of endurance, strength, flexibility, and agility Skilled movements; students perform complex physical skills with some degree of proficiency. Nondiscussive behaviors; students communicate feeling and emotions through bodily action. Bina Nusantara University

8 Direct Instruction A structured, teacher-centered approach that is characterized by teacher direction and control, high teacher expectations for students’ progress, maximum time spent by students on academic tasks, and efforts by the teacher to keep negative affect to a minimum. Bina Nusantara University

9 Teacher-Centered Instructional Strategies
Orienting; before presenting and explaining new material, establish a framework for the lesson and orient students to the new material. Review the previous day’s activities Discuss the lesson’s objective Provide clear, explicit instructions about the work to be done Give an overview of today’s lesson Lecturing, explaining, and Demonstrating Presenting information and motivating students Introducting a topic Summarizing or synthesizing information after a discussion Providing alternative points of view Explaining materials Bina Nusantara University

10 Teacher-Centered Instructional Strategies
Questioning and Discussing; it is necessary but challenging to integrate questions and discussion in teacher-centered instruction Mastery Learning; learning one concept or topic thoroughly before moving on to a mre difficult one. Seatwork; the practice of having all or majority of students work independently at their seats. Homework; homework can be valuable tool for increasing learning, especially in middle and high school. Bina Nusantara University

11 Evaluating Teacher-Centered Instruction
Be an organized planner, create instructional objectives Have high expectations for students’ progress Use lecturing, explaining, and demonstrating to benefit certain aspects of students’ learning Enggage students in learning by developing good question-asking skills Have students do meaningful seatwork Give students meaningful homework to increase their academic learning time Bina Nusantara University

12 Learner-centered lesson planning and instruction
Learner-centered principles Learner centered lesson planning and instruction move the focus away from the teacher and toward the student Cognitive and metacognitive factors Motivational and affective factors Developmental and social factors Individual differences Bina Nusantara University

13 Learner-centered lesson planning and instruction
Some learner-centered instructional strategies Problem based learning; emphasize real-life problem solving Essential questions; question that reflect the heart of the curriculum, the most important things that students should explore and learn Discovery learning; learning in which students construct an understanding on their own. Evaluating learner-centered instruction critics of learner-centered instruction argue that it gives too much attention to the process of learning, and not enough to academic content. Bina Nusantara University

14 Technology and Education
The technology revolution and the internet Standard for technology-lierate students Teaching. Learning, and technology Technology and sociocultural diversity The future of technology in school Bina Nusantara University

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