Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Karbala: Aftermath and Consequences Dr. A.S. Hashim.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Karbala: Aftermath and Consequences Dr. A.S. Hashim."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Karbala: Aftermath and Consequences Dr. A.S. Hashim

3 Salaam to Al-Husain السلام عليك يا أبا عبد الله وعلى الأرواح التي حلت بفنائك عليك مني سلام الله أبداً ما بقيت وبقي الليل والنهار ولا جعله الله آخر العهد مني لزيارتكم السلام على الحسين وعلى علي بن الحسين وعلى أولاد الحسين وعلى أصحاب الحسين جميعاً ورحمة الله وبركاته

4 Surah Al-Fajr: the # 9 revealed Surah Surah Al-Fajr was revealed in the early weeks of Islamic Mission, About: 15 years before Ramadhan became a fasting month 21 years before Haj was demonstrated by the Prophet (pbuh) 84 years before Karbala events took place

5 Surah Al-Fajr, Tafseer وليال عشر: 1. لعل المراد بها الليالي العشر من أول ذي الحجة إلى عاشرها 2. وقيل: المراد بها الليالي العشر من آخر شهر رمضان، وقيل: الليالي العشر من أوله، 3. و قيل الليالي العشر من أول المحرم وَالْفَجْرِ وَلَيَالٍ عَشْرٍ وَالشَّفْعِ وَالْوَتْرِ وَاللَّيْلِ إِذَا يَسْرِ هَلْ فِي ذَلِكَ قَسَمٌ لِّذِي حِجْرٍ

6 Subjects Discussed in the Slide Show 2. Intermediate Period 3. Long Term 1. Immediate Period Karbala

7 The Aftermath of Karbala 5. Globalization of Karbala 4. The Sanctuary 3. The Revolts 2. Commemoration 1. Ripple Effect

8 Immediate Period of Karbala Aftermath Immediate Period after Karbala deals with: 1. Head of Imam Al-Husain in: a.Karbala b.Damascus c.Cairo 2. Commemoration: Held Privately, locally, confidentially 3. Revolts a.Ibn Zubair b.Al-Tawwaboon c.Al-Mukhtar avenging for Al-Husain 4. Building the Shrine

9 Intermediate Period of Karbala Aftermath: 2. The Sanctuary 3. The Commemoration 1. Revolts Karbala Aftermath Karbala is the Centerpiece for Islam Symbolizes the Struggle against Oppression and Injustice Throughout all Ages

10 Intermediate Period of Karbala Aftermath: Intermediate period after Karbala 1. Al-Ridha (around 202H): Makes Commemoration Public (Majlis in the houses) 2. Destruction of Al-Husain’s Shrine (around 247H): a.Al-Mutawak’kil: By the 3 rd try b.Rebuilding the shrine by al-Mun'tasir 3. Commemoration: a.Publicly Parading, Al-Buwayhi period (around 375H) b.Expanding the Shrine c.Karbala as a town

11 Late Period of Karbala Aftermath: Up to Nowadays Commemoration held world wide by the Shi'a AsiaEurope America: North and South America Australia Fasting (Celebrated) by the Sunni: Moses crossing the sea (most Sunni reports). Abdul Qadir Gailani (One Sunni report) claims events of Adam, Noah, Ibrahim, Moses, Ayyub, Yusuf, Yunus, Dawood, Suleiman, Jesus, and Husain: took place then.

12 (Head of al-Husain) Immediate Period #1 Immediate Period after Karbala 1.Head of Al-Husain, Resting Place: a.Karbala: at the Shrine b.Damascus: Special Room in al-Masjid al-Umawi c.Cairo: Al-Husain’s Shrine

13 The Revolts Immediate Period #2: The Revolts 1. Ibn Zubair in Hijaz: Revolts against Yazid 2. Al-Tawwaboon: 4 yrs after Karbala, they fight unto death 3. Al-Mukhtar: 5-6 yrs after Karbala, Kills all if not most of the ones who fought Al- Husain, including all the leaders: Shimr, Omar ibn Sa’ad, and Ibn Ziyad

14 The Revolts Immediate Period #2: Immediate Period after Karbala 1. Al-Tawwaboon during Marwan’s Reign: fight Benu Umayya unto death, 4,000 (Some claim 16,000) 2. Al-Mukhtar avenging for Al-Husain: Killing all who fought Al- Husain especially: a. Omar ibn Sa’ad b. Shimr c. Obaidullah ibn Ziyad 3. Rules Iraq for more than a year: during Abdul Malik’s reign 4. Al-Mukhtar builds the rudimentary Shrine for Imam Husain 5. Houses were built around, the beginning of town of Karbala

15 (The Commemoration) Immediate Period #3 Immediate Period after Karbala 1.Commemoration: To hold Majlis, confidential, local, every year, in people’s houses, was urged by: 1.Zainul Abideen, 2.Al-Baaqir, 3.Al-Saadiq then 4.Subsequent Imams 2.To Discuss the events of Karbala and the cause against oppression and mischief, and hold to the ideals of Imam Husain 3.The Commemoration was a stroke of genius that proved to be the glue that holds the Shi’a together over the centuries

16 The 4 Phases of Commemoration 1. Private Homes 2. In Public & Privately 3. In Processions Modestly 4. Excessive Practices The Commemorations

17 The Evolution of Commemoration 1. For 140 yrs Confidential in Private Homes only 2. For 174 Yrs in Public and Private Homes in the Open 3. For 600 yrs In Processions 4. For 500 yrs In Processions with Excessive Practices Karbala Aftermath Evolution of Commemoration

18 The Commemoration 1. Zainul Abideen, Al-Baaqir, Al-Saadiq, and subsequent Imams had emphasized it 2. Was Confidential, in people’s houses 3. Made Public due to Al-Ridha effort: around 202H, also in people’s houses 4. Parading in the Streets during Buwayhi rule in 4 th century Hijrah and afterwards 5. To the excessive during Safawi period 6. Even more extreme nowadays

19 Zainul Abideen: To keep Karbala Alive Zainul Abideen urged people: 1.To visit the site of Karbala 2.To observe the anniversary of Karbala 3.In Sujood to touch a clean Turbah 4.Used a logo: May the Killer of Al ‑ Husain Ibn Ali be Debased and Defiled. 5.Mention Al-Husain often, cry, and make people cry too, thus actively participating on behalf of Al-Husain

20 Karbala: Keeps on The Culture of Karbala Keeps on and on: 1.Majlis and lectures 2.Commemoration: Mourning the occasion 3.The Sanctuary Continues despite adversities by: Al-Mutawak’kil The Ottomans The Wahhabis Saddam Hussein

21 The Sanctuary During the 1st 247 Years 2. Al-Mukhtar Structure 4. Al-Rasheed Demolishes 5. Al-Amin Rebuilds By 247H: Al-Mun’tasir Rebuilds 1. No Sanctuary Sanctuary 3. Al-Saffah Dome & Roof 6. Al-Mutawak’kil Demolishes

22 The Sanctuary of Imam Al-Husain: Up to 247H 65H: Al-Mukhtar built a simple enclosure around the grave with a small dome. There were two entrances to the structure. 132H A roof was built over a part of this mosque and two entrances were added by al ‑ Saffah. 140H The roof was demolished during the reign of Khalifa al ‑ Mansoor. 158H The roof was reconstructed during the reign of Khalifa al-Mahdi. 171H During the reign of al ‑ Rasheed the dome and the roof were demolished and the tree which stood near the grave was cut down 193H During the reign of Khalifa al-Amin the building was reconstructed 236H?247H The malicious al-Mutawak'kil demolished the buildings and ordered the land to be ploughed. 247H al-Mun'tasir built a roof over the grave and set up an iron pillar near it, to serve as a landmark for the visitors

23 The Sanctuary During the Years 280H-780H: Next 500 Years 2. Udh'd al-Dawla Dome & Gallaries 4. Damaged by fire; then Rebuilt 5. Nasir Deenul-Allah Rebuilds Enclosure H Jalaa’iri erects 2 Golden Minarets 1. By 280H: A Dome and 2 roofs Sanctuary 3. Enclosure of Sepulcher 6. Jalaa’iri remodels dome & Enclosure

24 The Sanctuary of Imam Al-Husain #2 280H: The Alawi representative built a dome at the center, with two roofs, on either side and an enclosure with two entrances. 371H Udh'd al-Dawla rebuilt the dome with surrounding galleries and constructed an enclosure of teak wood around the grave. He also constructed houses all round the shrine and erected the boundary wall of the city. At the same time Imran ibn Shahin built a mosque adjacent to the tomb. 407H The buildings were damaged by fire and the Wazir, al-Fadi rebuilt them 620H Nasir Deen-al-Allah reconstructed the enclosure of the grave. 757H Sultan Owais Jalaa’iri remodeled the dome and raised the walls of the enclosure 780H Ahmad ibn Owais erected two minarets covered with gold and extended the courtyard.

25 The Sanctuary During the Years 920H-1232H: Next 312 Years 2. Abbas Safawi constructs dharih 4. Nadir Shah decorates 5. Qajar covers the dome with gold. 7. By 1232H Ali Shah Qajar repairs Dharih 1. By 920H: Ismail Safawi, the Tomb Sanctuary 3. Murad IV whitewashes the dome 6. Wahhabis spoil Dharih & portico, & loot

26 The Shrine of Imam Al-Husain #3 920H: When Shah Ismail Safawi visited the shrine he built a Tomb of the inlaid work over the grave. 1032H Shah Abbas Safawi constructed the dharih (structure) of brass and bronze and decorated the dome with Kashi tiles H Sultan Murad IV, when he visited the holy shrine, whitewashed the dome. 1155H Nadir Shah visited the shrine and decorated the building and offered valuable presents to its treasury. 1211H Shah Muhammad Qajar covered the dome of the shrine with gold. 1216H Hordes of Wahhabis from Arabia attacked Karbala, spoiled the Dharih (structure) and portico and looted the shrine. In the meantime they slew 30,000 frightened inhabitants of Karbala. 1232H Fateh Ali Shah Qajar repaired the Dharih and plated them with silver. He also plated the center of the main portico with gold and repaired the damage done by the Wahhabi thieves.

27 4. Al-Khalsi extends courtyard and builds a Road The Sanctuary During the Years 1283H-1420H Next 137 Years 2. Bohra community Enclosure solid Silver 5. By 1420H Saddam Hussein attacks the shrine and massacres 1. By 1283H: Qajar: Extend Courtyard Sanctuary 3. Bohra community rebuilt western minaret

28 The Shrine of Imam Al-Husain #4 1283H: Nasiruddin Shah Qajar extended the courtyard of the shrine. 1358H Taher Saif-ul Deen, of Bohra community offered a set of enclosures of solid silver which are fixed in the shrine. 1360H Taher Saif-ul Deen, of Bohra community rebuilt the western minaret 1367H Al-Khalsi, Administrator of Karbala acquired the houses in the neighborhood of the courtyard according to the price fixed by the government, to build a road around the mausoleum and to extend the courtyard 1420H Forces of Saddam Hussein attack the shrine and massacre the frightened people inside. Damage to the shrine continues to exist, though much of it was repaired by Saddam within a few years.

29 Masjid al-Husain: Cairo, Egypt In Cairo Egypt

30 Masjid of al-Husain: Cairo, Egypt In Cairo Egypt

31 Shrine of Al-Husain: Karbala In Karbala, Iraq

32 Shrine of Al-Husain: Karbala In Karbala, Iraq

33 Numerical Perspective: (1996): SHI’A …………………………………………..… … Millions SUNNI: Hanafi …………….……………………...…………. 380 Millions Maaliki ………………………………………………. 305 Millions Shafi’i ……………………………………………… Millions Hanbali …………………………………… …….. 52 Millions

34 Iman (Belief) Shi’aSunni God and His Attributes Al-Adl (Justice of God) The Angels Prophethood: a. The Revealed Books (Torah and Bible) b. The Angels c. Qadr: Being Guided yet Free to Choose The Revealed Books (Torah and Bible) Imamah Messengers of God The Hereafter Qadr: Guided yet Free to Choose

35 Rituals (Ibadat) Shi’aSunni 1. Salat: Prayer 1. Shahaada: Declaration 2. Zakat: Poor’s Due 2. Salat: Prayer 3. Saum: Fasting 3. Zakat: Poor’s Due 4. Haj: Pilgrimage 4. Saum: Fasting 5. Khums: The Fifth 5. Haj: Pilgrimage 6. Jihad: Major and Lesser 7. Enjoining to what is Good 8. Forbidding what is Evil

36 Quran: Chapter 5, Verse 48 …To each among you have We prescribed a Law and an open way. If God had so willed, He would have made you a single people: But, His plan is to test you in what He hath given you: So strive as in a race in all virtues. The goal of you all is to God; it is He that will show you the truth of the matters in which ye dispute; …لكل جعلنا منكم شرعة ومنهاجا ولو شاء الله لجعلكم امة واحدة ولكن ليبلوكم في ما اتاكم فاستبقوا الخيرات الى الله مرجعكم جميعا فينبئكم بما كنتم فيه تختلفون

37 In Conclusion Aftermath of Karbala Events The developments in the Immediate, the intermediate, then the late period The head of Husain The Revolts The Commemorations The Sanctuary during: The first 247H Years The years of 280H-780H The years of 920H-1232H The years of 1283H-1420H Pictures of the Sanctuaries Statistics and Views of the Faith

38 Finally we quote the Quran: In Allah’s Name, Lord of Mercy and Lord of Grace By the Token of Time Verily Man is in loss, Save those who believe and do good works, and exhort one another to Truth and exhort one another to patience. بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ وَالْعَصْرِ إِنَّ اِلانسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ إِلا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ

39 THANK YOU Be blessed and in Allah’s Care Dr. A.S. Hashim


Download ppt "Karbala: Aftermath and Consequences Dr. A.S. Hashim."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google