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Alexander of Macedon. unstable & relatively insignificant kingdom before 4th century weak ties to Greek world not considered completely Greek by southern.

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Presentation on theme: "Alexander of Macedon. unstable & relatively insignificant kingdom before 4th century weak ties to Greek world not considered completely Greek by southern."— Presentation transcript:

1 Alexander of Macedon

2 unstable & relatively insignificant kingdom before 4th century weak ties to Greek world not considered completely Greek by southern Greeks "Medizers" during Persian Invasion (sided with Persia) Ancient Macedon(ia)

3 distinctive culture – fringe of the Greek world dialect, tumulus burials, unmixed wine, royal polygamy powerful monarchy: personal allegiance (treaties, etc.) warrior aristocracy loyal to king (not state, laws etc.) increasing role in Greek politics export of grain to Athens & potential to control N. Aegean grain century of inter-Greek war creates opportunities problem: internal strife nearly destroys Macedon in early 4th C Macedonian Society

4 son of Amyntas III and Illyrian Eurydice sent as hostage to Epaminondas in Thebes ( BCE) learns innovative military tactics from Ep. takes power in 359 after death of brother Perdiccas in civil wars consolidates power against pretenders; defeats external enemies in region by 357 Philip II of Macedon (ca BCE ): early years

5 goal: stabilize the archaic Macedonian government & army influence of Epaminondas military reforms Development of siege engines (catapults) Macedonian phalanx: longer spears (sarissa – 18feet) Light armed infantry and cavalry (scouts, speed) Recognition of common soldiers (“foot companions”) Philip II of Macedon: reforms

6 military reforms Recognition of common soldiers (“foot companions”) Expands ranks of warrior aristocracy (devastated by civil wars) Institution of Royal Pages (children of nobles, serve king) Rewards for nobles increase loyalty Battle of the Crocus Field – Gains Thessaly (cavalry; double force size) h Philip II of Macedon

7 Athens: major Greek power in early 4 th C 357: Athenian Ally Amphipolis taken by Philip (effective siege warfare) Athenians fail to unite Greece against Philip Demosthenes: Athenian orator opposes Philip Philip II vs. Athens

8 Athens: major Greek power in early 4 th C Demosthenes: Athenian orator opposes Philip alliance with Olynthos, destroyed by Philip II in 348 Peace of Philocrates (346) attempt to prevent war between Athens/Macedonia Athens accepts Philip’s power in NE Demosthenes helps negotiate, then seeks to undo aftermath of Peace brief lull in hostilities while Philip consolidates power in north 4 th Sacred War: Philip again uses Delphi as excuse to invade Athens fails to gain full coalition with other Greeks Philip II vs. Athens Demosthenes

9 coalition of Athens & Thebes faces Philip in Boeotia Resounding victory for Philip Theban Sacred Band annihilated 1000 Athenian hoplites killed, 2000 captured Philip's 18-yr-old son Alexander leads decisive cavalry charge Battle of Chaironeia (338)

10 Philip’s plans for Greece harsh treatment of Thebes, leniency toward Athens Corinthian League: legitimizes Macedonian control of Greece rhetoric: Philip II will lead "free Greeks" in attack on Persia reality: foundation for Macedonian World Empire assassination of Philip II summer 336: killed by member of bodyguard conflicts within Macedonian aristocracy Olympias, mother of Alexander possibly responsible in response to Philip’s marriage to Macedonian noble Philip II after Chaironeia tomb of Philip II

11 Greece at the death of Philip II (336)

12 early years born to Philip II and main wife Olympias tutored by Aristotle Boucephalus legend accession to throne at age 20 (336) consolidation of power (336-34) purge of Macedonian royal family immediate trip to Greece enforces pro-Macedonian regimes defeats northern "barbarians" returns to crush Greek revolt; Thebes destroyed Alexander III "the Great" of Macedon ( )

13 Alexander takes up Philip’s war against Persians; invades Asia brings retinue of scientists and historians Faces and defeats force of Persians at Battle of Granicus (334) Persians fail to turn Greeks against Alexander Alexander executes Greek mercenaries in Persian army Alexander sweeps through Ionia (tribute > "contributions") Unties ‘Gordian Knot’ Alexander the Great: invasion of Western Asia

14 leads army south along Mediterranean Battle of Issos (333) in NW tip of Mediterranean Persian army led by King Darius III Persian army soundly defeated royal family captured; king Darius III flees back east Family treated as his own (new king of Asia) Alexander the Great: invasion of Western Asia

15 Siege of Tyre – Phoenician city, Persian naval stronghold Siege lasts 8 months; city falls in August of 332 City razed to the ground, inhabitants sold into slavery Alexander continues south to Gaza Gaza besieged for 2 months, destroyed Path to Egypt opened Alexander the Great: eastern Mediterranean (332-1)

16 destruction of Tyre & Gaza puts end to resistance; path to Egypt opened Alexander in Egypt Persian satrap surrenders without fight identifies himself with pharaohs, local gods (syncretism) called son of Zeus-Ammon by oracle at Siwa (effect on psychology) founds Egyptian Alexandria (later site on Library, Pharos Lighthouse) Alexander the Great: eastern Mediterranean (332-1) Alexander as pharaoh

17 seeks final confrontation with Persian king Darius III; rejects peace Battle of Guagamela (331): Persian defeat, Darius escapes east Greeks face war elephants for first time Alexander assumes title of Persian king Alexander the Great: conquest of Asia (331-30)

18 Alexander takes Western capitals of empire Babylon: sacrifices to local gods/restores temples Susa: local customs respected, treasury left intact Alexander the Great: conquest of Asia (331-30)

19 Destruction of Persepolis – conquest complete spiritual center of Persian Empire (major royal festivals) Main powerbase for Persian rule burned: revenge for Athens, symbolic of Persian loss of power, he was drunk Ecbatana in Media, last of capitals taken; all treasuries controlled Alexander the Great: conquest of Asia (331-30) Darius III

20 Death of Darius III (330) flees to Bactria (Afghanistan), killed & replaced by local satrap Bessus Alexander assumes role of avenging Darius III, portrays self as successor buries Darius with honors Bessus turned over to Alexander, executed Alexander the Great: conquest of Asia (331-30) Darius III

21 invasion of central Asia – most difficult part of expedition Bactria and Sogdiana (330-27): subdued with difficulty Appointed Greeks as satraps (provincial governors) Established military colonies throughout area to secure territory Tensions among Macedonian generals grows Alexander the Great: conquest of Asia (331-30)

22 Orientalization marriage to Sogdian Rhoxane – first wife; unrest increases behaving like a Great King (dress, customs) proskynesis – first sign of open resistance to Alexander by Greeks Incorporation of Iranians to king’s inner circle personality problems paranoia – execution of Philotas, Parmenion alcoholism – murder of Cleitus the Black Alexander the Great: conquest of Asia (330-27) Alexander & Rhoxane

23 Approach to India (Indus Valley), edge of known world Land of mystery, fantastic peoples and creatures goal: control the whole world Kashmir surrenders without opposition Battle of Hydaspes (326): defeats King Poros Reinstates Poros to his throne, adds territory Alexander the Great: invasion of India (327-25)

24 Had enough: army refuses to go further east They campaign to mouth of Indus before returning westward return takes two years Macedonian satraps hang on in India only a few years Return by land through Gedrosian dessert, be sea thousands die on two month march Alexander the Great: invasion of India (327-25)

25 Alexander's policies administration of Empire adopts the Persian model (Macedonian satraps, loyal locals) relations between Greeks and non-Greeks urges fusion between cultures (especially royal families) Mass marriage at Susa in 324 between Greek/Persian nobles Iranians incorporated into high ranks of army Greeks mutiny at Opis in summer of 324

26 death of Alexander increasingly erratic behavior grief over death of Hephaistion plans to conquer Arabia (armies not eager) dies in Babylon June aged 32 Generals divide empire amongst themselves; Successor kingdoms fight each other for next 2 centuries. Ptolemy founds longest lasting kingdom in Egypt ends with Cleopatra in 31 BC Alexander's policies

27 Alexander's Empire (332-26)


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