5Who was Alexander the Great and why so great? Alexander III ( BC), or Alexander the Great was Macedonian king and son of Philip II of MacedonBorn in Pella, MacedoniaTutored by the Greek philosopher, AristotleHis father, Philip, was king of Macedonia, and had conquered the Greek city states during his 27 year reignIn ten years, Alexander of Macedonia created the largest empire in the world up to that timeAlexander spread Greek culture, ensuring cultural diffusion and the survival of the qualities of classical Greece
7Alexander was only 20 when he became king of Macedonia Philip was murdered in 336 B.C. by an assassin…maybe hired by his wife, Olympia…Alexander was only 20 when he became king of MacedoniaRuled Macedonia from B.C. and transformed it into a powerful military machinePhilip's DeathOlympia, wife of Philip II and mother of AlexanderPhilip returned to Pella in 336 to attend his daughter's wedding. As the bridal party passed through the streets in procession, three men leaped from the crowd and stabbed Philip to death. The three men were killed on the spot. There have long been dark rumors that Philip's death was engineered by his own wife, Olympia, who was eager for her son to be king. There is no real evidence for this.
8Eyes on PersiaPhilip intended to use Greece as a launching pad to invade Persia, but he was assassinated before he could begin his planInstead the invasion of Persia would be left for Philip’s son Alexander who was just 20 when Philip was assassinatedHistory suggests that Alexanderinherited from his father the most perfectly organized, trained, and equipped army of ancient times.
9Phalanx: ancient Greek expression to signify an organized, dense line of battle; the heavily armed infantry soldiers were known as hoplites.
10The army crossed the Dardanelles in spring 334 Like Father, Like Son…Expanding the EmpireAlexander’s army of over 50,000 crossed at the Dardanelles into Asia, where he would declare that the whole of Asia would be won by the spearThe army crossed the Dardanelles in spring 334
11Warfare in the Age of Alexander CompanionsAlexander’s elite cavalry, the offensive arm of his army, and his elite guard.They would be used in conjunction with the phalanx. The phalanx would fix the enemy in place and then the companion cavalry would attack on the flank.Alexander would lead the charge with his cavalry, normally in a wedge formation.These troops would also protect the flanks of the Macedonian line during battle.
12Alexander used an extremely effective strategy against the separated armies of Persia. He called it the “hammer and anvil” tactic.He would arrange all of his infantry in such a way that they would be grouped together in a collection of 256 men; a square 16 across by 16 deep. This method of arranging the infantry was called the “phalanx” and it is believed to be one of the most potent weapons of war in the ancient world.Alexander then had all of the phalanx march directly into the enemy line while all of the cavalry would circle around the back of the opposing army. The phalanx would keep the enemy in place with the use of there longer spears and the cavalry would drive them towards the phalanx, causing the enemy to be trapped. This is why the military technique is known as the “hammer and anvil”, because the infantry would act as the anvil and the cavalry as the hammer. In the past, this maneuver had worked perfectly for the Macedonian army, but because at Gaugamela the Persian army was stretched nearly two and a half miles wide with 200,000 men, Alexander and his army of 47,000 knew that the regular hammer and anvil...
13Sieges involved the surrounding and blockading of a town or fortress by an army trying to capture it.A variety of weapons were built to hurl projectiles over city walls, scale or batter the walls, and transport soldiers over them.
16Defeating Darius III of Persia, 331BCE Darius made sure that this battleground favored his army and its tactics particularly the use of his feared scythe-wheeled chariots.Persian army of possibly 200,000 faced off against Alexander's 35,000.Alexander immediately sized up the Persian's tactical advantage and countered by ordering his cavalry to shift to the right hoping to move his enemy away from its flat field.Darius took the bait ordering his troops to follow.Soon the Persians found themselves on rough, rock-strewn terrain.Seeing the thinning Persian line, Alexander led the charge that crashed through to the Persian rear.As at the battle of Issus, Darius fled, leaving the field and victory to AlexanderDarius was forced to flee, abandoning is mother, wife and children to AlexanderInteresting sidebar: Darius flees, Alex chases, Darius’s men murder him, Alex executes the men, Darius is given a royal funeral….Honor amongst men!
17Defeating Darius III of Persia, 331BCE Soon the Persians found themselves on rough, rock-strewn terrain.Seeing the thinning Persian line, Alexander led the charge that crashed through to the Persian rear.As at the battle of Issus, Darius fled, leaving the field and victory to AlexanderDarius was forced to flee, abandoning is mother, wife and children to AlexanderInteresting sidebar: Darius flees, Alex chases, Darius’s men murder him, Alex executes the men, Darius is given a royal funeral….Honor amongst men!
18And Down Goes Tyre Old city on the mainland was abandoned Alexander offered peace treatyTyrians killed Alexander’s ambassadors…sent Alexander into a tizzyNew city built on an island two miles long and separated from the coast by a half mile channelWalls were 150 feet highHad two harbors (Sidonian and Egyptian)Alexander originally had no ships so he built a land bridge across the channel
20Tyrians no match 7000 Dead Tyrians 400 Macedonians Took 7 months Battering RamTyrians no match7000 Dead Tyrians400 MacedoniansTook 7 months2000 crucified30K sold into slaveryLight CatapultStone Thrower
21After Alexander died, his generals jockeyed for power and by 275 they had divided up his kingdom into three large statesAntigonus took Greece and MacedonPtolemy took EgyptSeleuces took the former Achaemenid empireThe period of Alexander and his successors is called the Hellenistic period to reflect the broad influence of Greek culture beyond Greece’s bordersLife after Alexander