Presentation on theme: "Alexander and the Hellenistic Age Macedonia Philip of Macedonia Catapults Demosthenes Alexander the Great The Ten Thousand Granicus Satraps Darius III."— Presentation transcript:
Alexander and the Hellenistic Age Macedonia Philip of Macedonia Catapults Demosthenes Alexander the Great The Ten Thousand Granicus Satraps Darius III Tyre Alexandria Hellenistic
Philip of Macedonia Philip of Macedonia → also Philip II, sought to extend Macedonian rule throughout all of Greece. Learned of Greek culture, politics, and tactics from his time in Thebes Extended the empire as far south as Thermoplyae
Tactics of Philip Known for using an extremely large phalanx coupled with a cavalry. Would use the cavalry to strike at enemy flanks Made extensive use of the catapult Catapult → device that propelled large projectiles at speeds fast enough to do significant damage to opposing lines
Demosthenes Demosthenes was a skilled orator who rallied the Greek city- states to fight against Philip. Initially, was not respected but would later boost the morale of the city-states. Managed to encourage Sparta and Thebes to unify
Results Battle of Chaeronea in 338 B.C. Would mark the fall of the Theban/Athenian union to Philip. The Greeks were unable to withstand the Macedonian force, more likely because of the absence of Sparta during the resistance. Philip would have control over Greece and liberate the Peloponnesian states from oppressive Spartan control. Philip sought to extend control into the Asia Minor but would be murdered by an assassin.
Alexander the Great Alexander the Great would follow Philip as Macedonian king. Would come into power at age 20. Was tutored by Aristotle Sought to continue the work his father had begun.
Greek Resistance Would be met with opposition immediately after acceding to the throne. Thrace and Thebes would lead an uprising against Alexander Alexander would crush the rebellions and dismantle Thebes and place its citizens in slavery. This served as an example to the other Greeks to not rise against Alexander
The Expedition of the Ten Thousand Seventy years before Alexander marched through Persia, another Greek force had made its way through Persia and exposed its weakness. Ten Thousand → a group of 10,000 Greeks that made it into the heart of the Persian Empire and managed to return to Greece Exposed the weakness of the Persian Empire; the exterior of the empire is well fortified but the center is extremely weak.
Battle of Granicus – 334 B.C. Alexander would cross the Hellespont with roughly 40,000 men and arrive near the old site of Troy. Alexander would encounter the satraps of the Persian Empire on the Asia Minor and inflict a massive defeat upon them. Satrap → Persian governors/officials Alexander would only lose 100 men in the battle. This would allow Alexander to free the Ionian city-states.
Darius III Darius III → Persian emperor during the 4 th Century that would see the Persian Empire fall under his reign. Alexander would encounter Darius' forces near Syria and win the Battle of Issus due to cramped quarters. Alexander would claim Darius' wife, children and mother.
Capture of Tyre - Tyre → site of Persian naval base that was also a former Phoenician colony. - Alexander would build a causeway to go around the massive fortifications of Tyre. - The capture of Tyre provided Alexander the ability to cripple the Persian navy.
The Founding of Alexandria - Alexander would march into Egypt and claim Memphis. - From Memphis, he would sail down the Nile and subdue the remaining territories. - He would lay the foundations for his first city in Egypt, known as Alexandria
Capture of Libya - Alexander would continue to march westward through Africa. - Alexander would claim the territory which would become future Libya. - Alexander would stop near Carthaginian boundaries.
End of the Persian Empire - Alexander would encounter Darius in the field during the Battle of Arbela near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. - Alexander would rout the Persian forces and put Darius to flight. - Alexander would continue to march and while Darius was in flight he would be murdered by his own men.
March to India - Alexander would cross the Hindu-Kush Mountains and enter into India with his tired soldiers. - Alexander would claim a victory in northeastern India before his troops would refuse to go further. - The troops would force Alexander to return back to Greece - Alexander would not survive the return home as he would die of a fever in 323 B.C. At the age of 33.
Hellenistic Culture - Alexander's travels would open up the eastern portion of the world to the Greeks considering no person had traveled that far before. - He would hire numerous Persians to trusted positions and establish Babylon as his Macedonian capital. - The intermingling or mixture of races and ethnicities would construct the Hellenistic culture. - Hellenistic → blend of Greek culture and Eastern cultures (Persian, Indian, Egyptian).