4 Setting the Stage The Peloponnesian War has ended. Both Sparta and Athens, and most of the other city-states, had weakened defenses resulting from the extended fighting (27 years) of the Peloponnesian War.
5 Philip II Conquers Greece Philip II, King of Macedon, conquered nearby lands, then turned to Greek city-statesGreeks were weak and disorganized after Peloponnesian WarPhilip II conquered most of Greece by 338 BCE (know this date!)His dictatorial rule ended Greek democracyUsed the Phalanx with Sarissas, then calvary to beat enemies23-year-old King Philip II of Macedonia planned an empireHad been hostage in Greek city of Thebes, learned tacticsSaw advantage of full-time professional army, not citizen armyPhilip built professional army; devised new formations, tacticsExperimented with combining cavalry and infantry, used new weaponsUsed battering ram on gates, catapults to hurl stones at enemy walls
6 A "sarissa" was an 18-ft. long spear used by the Macedonians A "sarissa" was an 18-ft. long spear used by the Macedonians. Most other armies at the time utilized a spear only half as long as the sarissa. It ended the era of the Greek "hoplite" warfare.
7 Who was Phillip II and what did he do? Talk to a NeighborWho was Phillip II and what did he do?He was the King of MacedonHe conquered most of Greece by 338 BCE
8 Why were the Greek city-states open to an attack by Philip? Talk to your NeighborWhy were the Greek city-states open to an attack by Philip?Because the Peloponnesian War had left Greece weak and disorganized
9 Alexander Takes OverPhilip prepared to attack Persia, but was assassinated in 336 B.C.E.His 20-year-old son, Alexander, quickly took the throne
10 Alexander’s Parents Olympia Alexander’s mother Philip OlympiaAlexander’s motherPhilipAlexander’s father
11 Alexander Defeats Persia Alexander had been tutored by Greek scholars (like Aristotle) & trained in the armyGreek city-state of Thebes rebelled and was destroyed by AlexanderAlexander moved to Anatolia; attacked and defeated the PersiansAlexander turned south and was welcomed as a liberator by Egypt. He was made a Pharaoh. Egyptians were tired of being controlled by the PersiansHe controlled Persian Empire by 331 B.C.E
12 Alexander’s Other Conquests Armies reached India’s Indus River Valley in 326 B.C.E. His horse, Bucephalus, was killed there.Alexander wanted to keep going, but armies insisted on turning backReturned to Babylon in 323 B.C.E.; Alexander fell ill, and died at age 32He had established an empire from Greece to Egypt and the margins of IndiaAt his death, Ptolemy took control of Egypt and the remainder of the Empire was divvied up.
14 He did not go to China. He went as far as the Indus Valley (India) Talk to your NeighborDid Alexander conquer China? If not, then how far eastward in Asia did Alexander build his empire?He did not go to China. He went as far as the Indus Valley (India)