Setting the Stage The Peloponnesian War has ended. Both Sparta and Athens, and most of the other city-states, had weakened defenses resulting from the extended fighting (27 years) of the Peloponnesian War.
Philip II Conquers Greece Philip II, King of Macedon, conquered nearby lands, then turned to Greek city-states – Greeks were weak and disorganized after Peloponnesian War Philip II conquered most of Greece by 338 BCE (know this date!) His dictatorial rule ended Greek democracy Used the Phalanx with Sarissas, then calvary to beat enemies
A "sarissa" was an 18-ft. long spear used by the Macedonians. Most other armies at the time utilized a spear only half as long as the sarissa. It ended the era of the Greek "hoplite" warfare.
Talk to a Neighbor Who was Phillip II and what did he do? He was the King of Macedon He conquered most of Greece by 338 BCE
Talk to your Neighbor Why were the Greek city-states open to an attack by Philip? Because the Peloponnesian War had left Greece weak and disorganized
Alexander Takes Over Philip prepared to attack Persia, but was assassinated in 336 B.C.E. His 20-year-old son, Alexander, quickly took the throne
Olympia Alexander’s mother Olympia Alexander’s mother Philip Alexander’s father Philip Alexander’s father Alexander’s Parents
Alexander Defeats Persia Alexander had been tutored by Greek scholars (like Aristotle) & trained in the army Greek city-state of Thebes rebelled and was destroyed by Alexander Alexander moved to Anatolia; attacked and defeated the Persians Alexander turned south and was welcomed as a liberator by Egypt. He was made a Pharaoh. Egyptians were tired of being controlled by the Persians He controlled Persian Empire by 331 B.C.E
Alexander’s Other Conquests Armies reached India’s Indus River Valley in 326 B.C.E. His horse, Bucephalus, was killed there. Alexander wanted to keep going, but armies insisted on turning back Returned to Babylon in 323 B.C.E.; Alexander fell ill, and died at age 32 He had established an empire from Greece to Egypt and the margins of India At his death, Ptolemy took control of Egypt and the remainder of the Empire was divvied up.