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■ Essential Question: – What was the impact of the spread of Hellenic culture under Alexander the Great? ■ Warm-Up Question: – What are the top 3 Greek.

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Presentation on theme: "■ Essential Question: – What was the impact of the spread of Hellenic culture under Alexander the Great? ■ Warm-Up Question: – What are the top 3 Greek."— Presentation transcript:

1 ■ Essential Question: – What was the impact of the spread of Hellenic culture under Alexander the Great? ■ Warm-Up Question: – What are the top 3 Greek innovations? Explain how our world is better because of these 3 achievements.

2 Ancient Greece Mountains divided the Greeks into independent city-states, like Athens & Sparta Access to the sea increased trade & cultural diffusion (sharing ideas) with other cultures

3 The Greek city-states, especially Athens, developed cultural innovations that are still used today which transformed Greece into a “classical civilization”

4 Greek wealth & innovation made it a target to outside invasion; From 493 B.C. to 479 B.C., Persian kings Darius & Xerxes tried (but failed) to conquer the Greeks in the Persian Wars

5 After the Persian Wars, the Greek city-states, led by rivals Athens & Sparta, fought each other in the Peloponnesian Wars The Peloponnesian Wars left the Greeks weak & open to invasion

6 In 338 B.C., King Philip II of Macedonia attacked & conquered the Greeks, but he died soon after Macedonians viewed themselves as Greeks & shared much of their culture; King Philip II hired Aristotle to tutor his son Alexander

7 King Alexander of Macedonia ■ Alexander was only 20 years old when he became king of Macedonia: – But he proved to be ambitious & a brilliant military strategist – Once in power, Alexander began to expand his empire

8 The Empire of Alexander the Great Alexander began his conquest by crushing a Greek revolt in Thebes; He ordered the death of 6,000 people & sold everyone else into slavery; His brutality convinced other Greeks to not rebel Alexander set his sights on the Persian Empire & began his attack by conquering Egypt; Egyptians viewed Alexander as a liberator

9 The Empire of Alexander the Great In 331 B.C., Alexander attacked & defeated the mighty Persian army led by King Darius III Alexander destroyed the capital of Persepolis Alexander led his army to conquer India; After taking the Indus River Valley, Alexander’s troops begged him to return home after 11 years away from their homes while conquering the empire

10 The Empire of Alexander the Great By 323 B.C., Alexander had conquered a massive empire & began plans to govern & unify his kingdom, but he fell ill & died at the age of 32

11 Alexander left behind an important legacy: He spread Hellenic (Greek) innovations & culture throughout his empire In each territory he conquered, Alexander left behind a Greek-styled city named Alexandria

12 Alexandria in Egypt was the most significant of these cities & best represented Hellenism (the spread & blending of Greek culture ) Alexandria became the center for Hellenistic culture & trade for the Mediterranean world Alexandria had a museum & library that preserved Greek, Egyptian, Persian, Indian cultures & attracted scholars for centuries

13 Alexandria Egypt

14 When Alexander died without an heir, his empire was divided among his top 3 generals Alexander's empire was the largest of the classical era, but it was short-lived (13 years) & was never unified or governed

15 ■ Summary of Alexander the Great: – He was a military genius & well educated – His interest in Greek history & culture as well as Persian, Egyptian, & Indian ideas led to a vibrant new culture, Hellenism, that shaped future civilizations – But, his empire did not last long enough to compete with future empires, such as those ruled by Rome and the Mongols

16 Closure Activity Was Alexander the Great a Hero or Villain?? Read the following descriptions of Alexander the Great and decide whether he was a hero or villain. You must explain WHY!!!

17 Description #1 “In town after town, when natives resisted or tried to flee, the Macedonian forces adopted a single tactic: slaughter all males, and enslave all women and children. In one 9 month period, Alexander’s forces traveled down the Indus River and killed as many as 80,000 people.”

18 Description #2 “Alexander treated some of the rebels with compassion. His troops brought before him one Theban woman who had killed a Macedonian general. The woman was not apologetic, and she remained defiant even to Alexander. Still, he decided to spare her life because he admired her courage.”

19 Description #3 “ Despite the advice of even his closest aides, Alexander stole the city’s riches for himself. Then, in a drunken state, he allowed his men to burn down the Great Palace and its surrounding temples.”

20 Description #4 “ Alexandria flourished in part because of Alexander’s great respect for knowledge and various cultural traditions – not only those he brought with him from Greece, but those he found in Egypt as well.”

21 Description #5 “Alexander used to have the floors sprinkled with exquisite perfumes and with fragrant wine and incense was burned before him. Also, all the bystanders kept silent or spoke words only of good omen because of fear.”


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